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[其他发射] 2019年7月,月船2号/Chandrayaan-2月球探测器将由GSLV-mk3自达万航天中心发射

 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-7-28 22:09 | 显示全部楼层


Chandrayaan-2 payloads to be decided next month

Tuesday, Jul 27, 2010

Bangalore: The mission goal of India's second lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2, will be clearer next month when a meeting will decide upon the payloads, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Telemetry Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) director S.K. Shivakumar, said here on Monday.

A meeting here on August 3 would finalise Chandrayaan-2's scientific instruments, which together would weigh between 30 and 35 kg, said Dr. Shivakumar in a lecture on “Chandrayaan-Deep Space Network,” organised by the Institute of Engineers.

“The payloads are currently going through the process of short-listing,” he said.

Dr. Shivakumar said the probe would “take forward” some of the accomplishments of Chandrayaan-1, which had famously established the presence of water on the moon.

Chandrayaan-2, scheduled for a 2012 launch, would have an Indian-made orbiter and rover (to move on the moon's surface and collect soil samples), and a Russian lander.

Three-dimensional map

The data collected from Chandrayaan-1 continued to be analysed and a three-dimensional map of the lunar surface was being created with information received from the Terrain Mapping Camera, one of its 11 payloads, Dr. Shivakumar said.

Retracing the origins of ISRO's ambitious Indian Deep Space Network established in Byalalu (on the outskirts of Bangalore), Dr. Shivakumar said its giant 32-metre antenna had tracked the European Space Agency's missions to Venus and Mars.

“All calculations show that the antenna will successfully track India's Mars mission,” he added.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-16 22:26 | 显示全部楼层


本帖最后由 jingyan66 于 2010-8-16 22:28 编辑

12 August 2010 Last updated at 20:55 ET

Race to launch Moon landing probeBy Anatoly Zak

Science reporter
Russia's four-legged lunar platform will release an Indian-built rover
A modern-day space race to land an unmanned probe on the Moon is emerging between Russia and India on one side and China on the other.

After months of negotiations, Russian and Indian engineers have started working on a robotic mission together.

This would see the landing of a small four-wheeled rover on to the surface of the Earth's celestial neighbour.

It is set to launch in 2013
, to roughly match the scheduled lunar landing of China's Chang'e-3 spacecraft.

Whichever team gets there first, it would be the first human hardware to function on the lunar surface since the Soviet Luna-24 spacecraft returned to Earth with Moon's soil samples in 1976.

Known in Russia as Luna-Resource and in India as Chandrayaan-2, the joint mission will include an Indian-built lunar orbiter and the Russian-built landing platform both launched by a single Indian rocket.

The Russian-built four-legged platform will deliver around 35kg of scientific equipment to the lunar surface and release a 15kg Indian-built robotic rover.

Despite being a far cry from the 750kg Soviet Lunokhod rovers, which rolled across the lunar landscape in the 1970s, the tiny Indian electric vehicle is still expected to provide scientific data, thanks to miniaturisation of technology.

"We do understand that, first of all, it is a demonstration of the Indian presence on the surface of the Moon," Aleksandr Zakharov, a leading scientist at the Space Research Institute (IKI) in Moscow told BBC News.

"However, it will have a TV camera onboard, and we also asked our Indian partners to include a miniature manipulator, so it could sample soil beyond the reach of the robotic arm of the (stationary Russian) lander."

The rover and all of its scientific instruments are expected to be Indian-built, even though India is free to solicit foreign participation, Mr Zakharov said.

Quest for water

Russia recently put the highest priority on the Luna-Resource project in order to fulfill a 2013 launch window insisted upon by India, Russian space industry officials said.

Mr Zakharov said the work on Luna-Resource was proceeding even more actively than on Russia's own project of lunar exploration - known as Luna-Glob

By the end of this month, the Moscow-based institute is planning to finalise the selection of instruments which will comprise the scientific payload aboard the stationary Luna-Resource lander.

The main focus of the scientific instruments would be the geochemical analysis of the lunar soil, including the detection of water.

Confirming the existence of lunar water became especially important for planetary scientists in 1990s, after a US probe found signs of water ice around the lunar poles.

By doing so, scientists would not simply write an important chapter in the geological history of the Earth's natural satellite, but also provide a major imperative if humans ever attempt to establish a habitable base on the Moon.

According to Mr Zakharov, a drilling mechanism, which is being considered for the Luna-Resource mission could penetrate as deep as 1m below the surface and with some luck achieve the pioneering feat of "touching" lunar water.

To increase the chances of this happening, Russian and Indian scientists will be working to carefully select landing sites for the mission.

Although the search is expected to continue for some time, the lunar South Pole had already been singled out as a possible target, where water ice could be most abundant and lie closest to the surface.

The selection process could be facilitated by data from India's first lunar mission - Chandrayaan-1 - which orbited the Moon in 2008.

According to Mr Zakharov, landing at the poles the Moon could be arranged so that it ensures the largely uninterrupted communications of the spacecraft with ground control.

At the same time, the Moon's polar regions are largely an enigma to scientists, as all previous lunar landings were limited to equatorial and middle latitudes.

Along with the quest for water, the Luna Resource mission could improve understanding of the internal composition of the Moon and its orbital movement with the help of a seismometer and a laser reflector.

Also on the short list of potential payloads is a radio beacon, which could facilitate lunar landings for future missions. Up to 10 scientific instruments could be placed aboard the lander, Zakharov said.

As Russia's second deep-space launch attempt after the scheduled mission to Phobos in 2011, Luna-Resource is expected to make a maximum use of scientific hardware, which had already been developed for exploration of the Martian Moon.

The IKI also expects that many of its traditional partners abroad would consider participating in the new mission. "We do talk to our usual partners in France, Germany, Sweden and other countries and we are counting on that," Mr Zakharov said.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-16 22:31 | 显示全部楼层

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shaolin1254 发表于 2009-9-30 11:48

 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-26 14:03 | 显示全部楼层


Thursday, August 5, 2010

A Chandrayaan-II update

The Minister of State for Science & Technology and Earth Sciences, Prithviraj Chavan answering a question in Parliament said that scientists at the Indian Space Research Organisation were building and developing the Chandrayaan-II spacecraft along with Russia. It is going to carry an Indian orbiter with scientific instruments, a Russian lander and an Indian rover with scientific instruments.

On August 3, 2010, ISRO was to have a meeting to decide on the payloads of Chandrayaan-II. The results of the meeting was shared and it seems that India seems to be going with better versions of the instruments it carried on board Chandrayaan-I.

There has apparently been no discussion on the foriegn (other than Russia) payloads that Chandrayaan-II will carry although NASA and ESA have shown interest.

Earlier, ISRO officials had said that Chandrayaan-II will carry two rovers - a 50 kg Russian one along with a 15 kg Indian rover. The statement made by the Minister yesterday however reveals that ISRO is now going with a single Indian one. There have been no clarifications from ISRO or Roscosmos about what caused this change in decision. Perhaps this was to help accomodate more scientific payloads on the orbiter/rover. Also removing that second Indian rover, would have meant that it would become a Russian surface landing mission.

Again the buzz surrounding the Indian Lunar Mission is rising, with payloads being discussed and debated. The Scientific Advisory Committee was constituted to select foriegn payloads from about 36 short-listed international proposals. TThere has been no word so far on the international selections. A better version of Terrain Mapping Camera is likely to find its way into Chandrayaan-II, but other instruments it seems is still being selected.

The only constant in this chatter of news stream is that Chandrayaan-II will fly in the first quarter of 2013.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-26 14:04 | 显示全部楼层


Image01542 (1).jpg
cmj9808 发表于 2010-8-31 10:11 | 显示全部楼层
Chandrayaan 2目前的载荷搭载方案

Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS)
L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS)
Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE-2)
Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2)

Laser induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)
Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Spectroscope (APIXS)
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-31 16:16 | 显示全部楼层


俄新网RUSNEWS.CN班加罗尔8月27日电 俄罗斯航天署副署长阿纳托利·希洛夫今天向记者透露,俄航天署署将向俄印"月球初航二号"(Chandrayaan-2)联合探月工程提供着陆器,着陆器首先将在火星卫星上进行试验。运载火箭和月球车将由印度提供。



 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-31 16:16 | 显示全部楼层



  [据俄新社2010年8月31日报道]  印度太空研究组织(ISRO)称,已最终确定了“月球航行”-2任务有效载荷清单。
naugty 发表于 2010-8-31 16:30 | 显示全部楼层

  [据俄新社2010年8月31日报道]  印度太空研究组织(ISRO)称,已最终确定了“月球航行” ...
jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-31 16:16


 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-31 19:13 | 显示全部楼层


August 30, 2010  PRINT THIS PAGE     

Payloads for Chandrayaan-2 Mission Finalised  

Chandrayaan2, India's second mission to moon, is being targeted for launch during 2013. Chandrayaan2 will have an orbiter (satellite), a lander and a rover. Chandrayaan-2 is planned to be launched onboard Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. While the lander will be provided by Russia, the orbiter and the rover are being built by ISRO.

The payloads to be flown onboard Chandrayaan2 (orbiter and rover) have been finalised by a National committee of experts drawn from ISRO centres, academic institutions and R & D laboratories and Chaired by Prof U R Rao, Chairman, Advisory Committee on Space Sciences (ADCOS) and former Chairman of ISRO.

The committee, after detailed deliberations and considering the mission requirements, weight and power available for scientific payloads, has recommended five payloads to be flown on the orbiter of which three are new and two are improved versions of the payloads flown earlier on Chandrayaan1 orbiter. The committee has also recommended two scientific payloads on the rover of Chandrayaan 2. Inclusion of additional payloads, if possible within the mission constraints, will be considered at a later date following a detailed review.

The five recommended payloads of Chandrayaan-2 orbiter are as follows:

1、Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) from ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore and Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) from Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad for mapping the major elements present on the lunar surface.
2、L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for probing the first few tens of meters of the lunar surface for the presence of different constituents including water ice. SAR is expected to provide further evidence confirming the presence of water ice below the shadowed regions of the moon.
3、Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) from SAC, Ahmedabad for the mapping of lunar surface over a wide wavelength range for the study of minerals, water molecules and hydroxyl present.
4、Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE2) from Space Physics Laboratory (SPL), Thiruvananthapuram to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere.
5、Terrain Mapping Camera2 (TMC2) from SAC, Ahmedabad for preparing a three-dimensional map essential for studying the lunar mineralogy and geology.
The two scientific payloads on Chandrayaan-2 rover are:

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) from Laboratory for Electro Optic Systems (LEOS), Bangalore
1、Alpha Particle Induced X ray Spectroscope (APIXS) from PRL, Ahmedabad.
2、Both the instruments are expected to carry out elemental analysis of the lunar surface near the landing site.

Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft weighs about 2,650 kg at lift-off of which the orbiter weight is about 1,400 kg and lander weight is about 1,250 kg. Development of the subsystems of the orbiter and the rover is in progress at ISRO centres in Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram and Ahmedabad.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-9-3 11:18 | 显示全部楼层



  [据美国aviationnow网站2010年8月31日报道] 俄罗斯航天局计划2011年测试印度“月球航行”-2(Chandrayaan-2)任务上的着陆器。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-9-7 09:32 | 显示全部楼层


'We're launching Chandrayaan-2 for a total coverage of the moon'

Sep 6, 2010, 12.00am IST

On August 30, India's second unmanned scientific mission to the moon, the Rs 425-crore Chandrayaan-2, slated for launch in 2013, a joint Indo-Russian flight, from Sriharikota, took a definite shape with the seven scientific instruments or payloads five on the India-built orbiter and two on the indigenous rover being announced by ISRO. A high-level committee headed by U R Rao , chairman, Advisory Committee on Space Sciences, made the choice of instruments . Srinivas Laxman talks to Rao, who was also chairman of ISRO between 1984 and 1994:

India's first lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 had accomplished nearly 95 per cent of its scientific objectives and is considered a success internationally. Why is India returning to the moon?

There are still a lot of outstanding issues about the moon, which have to be resolved in greater depth. Some of the experiments of Chandrayaan-1, moreover, achieved only 50 per cent to 70 per cent of their objectives. Again, due to power limitations, the Terrain Mapping Camera of Chandrayaan-1 could map only 45 per cent of the moon. We are launching Chandrayaan-2 because we need a total coverage of the moon, employ improved and new technology and obtain better quality photo imageries. The orbiter with the five payloads will be flying at an altitude of 200 km above the lunar surface and we estimate that its lifespan would be for two years depending on the use of the propellant.

A significant aspect of Chandrayaan-2 is that the orbiter, unlike in Chandrayaan-1, does not have any foreign payloads even though NASA and the European Space Agency showed interest. Is there any reason why foreign payloads have been removed?

As per the present plan we do not have any weight in the orbiter for foreign payloads. We were keen on giving an opportunity to our scientists. This is why we decided not to invite international participation this time. Keeping this in view we, unlike in Chandrayaan-1, did not issue a formal Announcement of Opportunity calling for international participation. Even at the last moment if we decide to have foreign payloads on Chandrayaan-2 after making weight allowances, we have to issue an Announcement of Opportunity, an elaborate exercise, which can delay the flight. The total mass of the five payloads on the orbiter is about 40 kg at the moment and we are trying to reduce it, which may be difficult.

In Chandrayaan-1 many Indian scientists regretted that their achievements were sidelined especially with regard to the discovery of water and NASA took away the credit. Is this a reason why the committee eliminated foreign instruments on board Chandrayaan-2?

[ Laughs ] The instruments were chosen based purely on their scientific merit. The weight of Indian rover was earlier stipulated as 15 kg. Has this been finalised and what will be its lifespan?

It will be more than that. It will function only for a few days on the surface of the moon because of power limitations. It will carry its own power. The design and development of the rover is a new technology for us. For the orbiter we have selected the right altitude of 200 km above the moon's surface for it to fly because too many corrections are not needed at this altitude. (The flight plan envisages the lander with the rover detaching from the orbiter at a certain point near the moon and soft landing on the lunar surface, the place has yet to be finalised. Thereafter, the rover will move out of the lander.)
naugty 发表于 2010-9-7 09:42 | 显示全部楼层
'We're launching Chandrayaan-2 for a total coverage of the moon'

Sep 6, 2010, 12.00am IST

On ...
jingyan66 发表于 2010-9-7 09:32


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 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-10-13 09:25 | 显示全部楼层


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 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-12-26 10:49 | 显示全部楼层



Next moon mission in 2013-14: ISRO

Sriharikota, Dec 25 (IANS) India's next moon mission, Chandrayaan II, will be launched in 2013-14, ISRO chairman K. Radhakrishnan said here Saturday.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chief made the announcement at a press conference after the failure of the GSLV rocket here Saturday.

Chandrayaan I was launched by ISRO in October 2008, and operated until August 2009.
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