楼主: jingyan66

[其他发射] 2019年7月15日05:21 月船2号/Chandrayaan-2月球探测器将由GSLV-MK3自达万航天中心发射

 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-8-10 10:40 | 显示全部楼层



    [据印度时报2009年8月7日报道] 印度太空研究组织(ISRO)主席奈尔称,印度正考虑使用核能作为“月球航行”-2某些部件的动力,当“月球航行”-2号进入月球黑暗侧时,探测器将采用核能作为动力。他还说,印度太空研究组织和巴巴原子研究中心(Bhabha Atomic Research Centre)正在对这一计划进行可行性研究,这将有益于在“月球航行”-2号上开展进一步的核能试验。


zhangwee 发表于 2009-8-10 21:40 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 zhangwee 于 2009-9-26 21:33 编辑

 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-8-16 21:21 | 显示全部楼层


Design of Chandrayaan-2 ready

First Published : 16 Aug 2009 12:35:02 PM IST
Last Updated : 16 Aug 2009 01:04:02 PM IST

BANGALORE: India has completed the design of Chandrayaan-2, its next mission to the moon -- this time in collaboration with Russia -- that would have a lander and rover which can collect samples of the lunar soil and analyse them and send back the data.

"Right now, the design has been completed. We had a joint review with Russian scientists here," Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation, G Madhavan Nair, told PTI.

According to the Bangalore-headquartered space agency, the Chandrayaan-2 mission would have an orbital flight vehicle constituting an Orbital Craft (OC) and a Lunar Craft (LC) that would carry a soft landing system up to Lunar Transfer Trajectory (LTT).

The target location for the lander-rover would be identified using data from instruments of Chandrayaan-1, India's own and first unmanned mission to the Moon launched on October 22 last year.

While ISRO will be developing the orbiter, it will be Russia's job to make the lander and rover. Additional scientific payloads would be acquired from international scientific community.

"Next (now that design has been completed) we will go towards prototype building, which will be taken up next year," Nair, also secretary in the Department of Space, said.

Nair said ISRO has learnt plenty of lessons from Chandrayaan-1 mission, particularly on the thermal and redundancy management fronts and would seek to improve systems in Chandrayaan-2, slated towards the end of 2012.

"I think we have got very valuable inputs on the heat radiation from the moon's surface and so on. Accordingly, the thermal design of the future aircraft can be addressed," he said. "Radiation is much beyond our expectations, so we will have to see how the radiation hardening has to be strengthened."

"Then, in redundancy management also, there are some inputs which are available from this (Chandrayaan-1), which we will try to incorporate in Chandrayaan-2."

The ISRO Chairman said contingency operations undertaken by the organisation following the failure of Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft's onboard star sensor earlier this year have worked well and "this is (now) as precise as it was earlier."

"We are able to locate the cameras at specific locations," he said noting some of the stereo images that have come recently. "The fact that we were able to point the spacecraft towards the Earth and capture the (recent) solar eclipse, shows the accuracy of the system."

Nair said 95 per cent of the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-1 mission have been achieved. "Another five per cent, what's left out, we will try to take up in the next season which is starting in October so that we can complete all the observations."

Nair said India's ground station at Byalalu on the city outskirts has given precision as good as the NASA station.

"We are comparing both the tracking results."

On how the US and Europe, which have flown instruments on board Chandrayaan-1, have taken to the failure of star sensor, Nair said, "They have got more than sufficient data with them and are extremely happy. Now, Indian and foreign scientists are working together to analyse the data and they have promised some results before the year end."

Three-dimensional pictures of the moon would be available soon, he said.

On the agenda for scientists' meet to discuss the Chandrayaan-1 project next month, Nair said ISRO wants to ensure that it has not "left out anything".

"Today, we know that there is no redundancy on board.

So, if further failure...if it happens, then we will be crippled.

"So, all the scientific objectives have to be completed in the remaining time. We will discuss with them what is pending and what needs to be done. Secondly, if some of them have got preliminary findings then we will try to make an assessment.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-8-18 07:17 | 显示全部楼层


22:11 | 2009-08-17

俄新网RUSNEWS.CN新德里8月17日电 《印度快报》援引印度太空研究组织(ISRO)主席马达范·奈尔的话报道说,印度和俄罗斯完成了探月器“月球首航2号”(Chandrayan-2)设计工作。




 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-8-30 09:18 | 显示全部楼层


Chandrayaan-2 design review completed

August 16, 2009, (Sawf News) - ISRO recently completed a joint review of the Chandrayaan-2 design with the Russian scientists.

"Right now, the design has been completed. We had a joint review with Russian scientists here," said ISRO chief G Madhavan Nair.

The Chandrayaan-2 is a joint Indo-Russian project with each agency putting in around Rs425 crore. It is expected to take off towards the end of 2012.

It will consist of an orbiter made by ISRO and a lander made by Russian Space Agency Roscosmos.

The lander will possibly have two robotic moon rovers which will be jointly designed and developed by India and Russia.

The landing site is yet to be identified but will be on the far side of the moon, with South Pole Aitkin (SPA) basin being a prime candidate. Imagery from Chandrayaan-1 is beings used to select the site.

The instrument package on board the orbiter is yet to be finalized. It could consist of Terrain mapping camera, 400-4000nm hyper spectral Imager, Low energy X-ray spectrometer (CCD-array)and Gamma ray, neutron, alpha spectrometer.

Chandrayaan-2 will be launched using a GSLV Mk III. The complete spacecraft will weigh 2,700 kg.

Russian press reports place the weight of the Moon lander at 400 kg

Chandrayaan-2 design was initially completed in December 2008.

Using the experience gained from Chandrayaan 1, particularly the more than expected radiation heating of the spacecraft, ISRO revised the design of Chandrayaan-2.

ISRO is contemplating the use of nuclear power for the lunar orbiter in collaboration with Bhaba Atomic Research Center.

"We are thinking of powering some parts of Chandrayaan-2 with nuclear power and it will power the spacecraft when it revolves around the dark side of the moon," Madhavan Nair told media in early August.
cmj9808 发表于 2009-8-30 10:17 | 显示全部楼层
选择Aitkin basin作为着陆点,看来Chandrayaan-2也向JAXA的SELENE-2看齐了,ISRO野心不小啊
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-8-31 09:53 | 显示全部楼层


Chandrayaan II on course: ISRO


Claiming that India’s first moon mission was a great success, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) today ruled out any delay in Chandrayaan II despite Chandrayaan I mission being terminated abruptly.

ISRO Chairman G Madhavan Nair speaking to reporters said that the snags in Chandrayaan I would not result in delay of Chandrayaan II, which is supposed to be launched in 2012.

“There are some marginal corrections that would be applied for the mission”, he said.

Nair said ISRO will set up a high-level committee, as a standard procedure to analyse the failure. He said that the environment around the moon was much more severe than what we anticipated.

“We survived for 315 days which is a good record. Many such experiments have burnt within a month in the past”, he stated.

“We are disappointed with the development, but have managed to get the large volume of data. We went through that and are contended with the results”, he said.

“The mission was a great success. Before the launch we had set up success criteria and technology objectives. We have found that all the instruments on the spacecraft worked satisfactorily as a result we could collect large volume of data”, Nair said.

A day after the abrupt end to the lunar mission, ISRO claimed that the 95 per cent of the objectives were completed.
“More than 70,000 images of the moon were captured. It showed the most important region of surface. We had joint experiments with NASA scientists wherein the signals from our spacecraft was sent to US satellite which were captured successfully”, the chairman added.

The ISRO chairman was talking to reporters at the backdrop of eighth international conference on Low Cost Planetary missions in Goa, which will be kicked off tomorrow at Cidade de Goa.

Nair said that the malfunction in computers onboard spacecraft led to the failure in communication.

“We tried to recover the communications for the entire day yesterday”, he said adding, “the power signals which go to the computer systems failed and we had to terminate the mission”.

The ISRO scientists present at the press conference said that spacecraft is 200 kms away from the moon and it will take 1000 days to hit the lunar surface.

India has already initiated discussions with USA and Russia to use their radars to track the spacecraft which is revolving in the orbit.

When asked about the responsibility of abrupt end, Nair quipped, “only I am responsible”.
cmj9808 发表于 2009-8-31 10:02 | 显示全部楼层

 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-9-2 17:10 | 显示全部楼层


Chandrayaan-1 off radar, but will work for 1000 days

1 Sep 2009, 0657 hrs IST, Srinivas Laxman, TNN

MUMBAI: Though India’s first moon mission “Chandrayaan-1 ’’ was officially “retired’ ’ on Sunday after it lost radio contact with the deep space  network at Byalalu on Saturday at 1.30 am, the lunar craft will continue to go around the moon for about 1,000 days more before it crashes on its surface.

This means that it will remain in orbit till the end of 2012 until preparations get under way for the “Chandrayaan-2 ’’ mission slated for lift-off in 2013. The 1,000-day countdown for Chandrayaan-1 ’s crash on the lunar surface began on Sunday.

Isro spokesperson S Satish told TOI from Panaji on Monday that in the next 1,000 days “Chandrayaan-1 ’’ will not be operating with its propellants, but will be just going around the moon on its own without doing any work.

He said that since it will be in orbit for 1,000 days Isro will explore the possibility of using the high-powered radars of the US and Russia to locate the spacecraft. “Discussions with these two countries have been initiated ,’’ he said.

Space expert Pradeep Mohandas said that “Chandrayaan-1 ’’ will be slowly pulled in by the gravity of the moon until it crashes on the lunar surface after 1,000 days. “After this it will spiral towards the moon’s surface and crash,’’ he said, while adding that it will slowly begin to lose its altitude. He cited the example of a Nasa spacecraft which was abandoned years ago, but was still in orbit.

Nasa and US government agencies have recommended placing retired spacecraft into an orbit at least 300 km above the geosynchronous orbit so that there is no danger of colliding with operating spacecraft.

Even as the space agency is trying to trace the cause of the communication breakdown, space scientists are divided on the issue regarding the lifespan of the “Chandrayaan-1 ’’ mission. There is a strong opinion that right from the beginning it should be have been declared a one-year mission and not a two-year project.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-9-7 09:09 | 显示全部楼层


Chandrayaan-I was 'killed' by heat stroke

Andrew Pereira, TNN 7 September 2009, 01:12am IST

PANAJI: The reasons for early termination of the Chandrayaan-I mission are now tumbling out and they reveal that ISRO had kept the Moon orbiter's problems tightly under wraps.

Contrary to the space agency's explanation that Chandrayaan's orbit around the Moon had been raised from 100km to 200km in May this year for a better view of the Moon's surface, it is now known that this was because of a miscalculation of the Moon's temperature that had led to faulty thermal protection.

Admitting this, Dr T K Alex, director, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore, said, “We assumed that the temperature at 100km above the Moon's surface would be around 75 degrees Celsius. However, it was more than 75 degrees and problems started to surface. We had to raise the orbit to 200km."

On May 19, however, ISRO said it had raised Chandrayaan's orbit to "enable further studies on orbit perturbations, gravitational field variation of the Moon and also enable imaging of the lunar surface with a wider swath".

It now transpires that heating problems on the craft had begun as early as November 25, 2008, forcing ISRO to deactivate some of the payloads — there were 11 in all.

As a result, some of the experiments could not be carried out which raised questions on whether the pre-launch thermal vacuum test done on the spacecraft at the ISRO Satellite Centre in Bangalore was adequate.

In early 2009, the situation improved and Chandrayaan-1 started operating normally. However, the snags resurfaced. This time with the two star sensors of Chandrayaan because of high temperature. The sensors are crucial in determining the orientation of the craft in space.

The first star sensor packed up on April 26, and even the back-up sensor failed during the second week of May.

An official requesting anonymity acknowledged: "This was purely a temporary step. It was like a broken car's steering wheel being repaired with scotch tapes. We could not predict how long this arrangement would last," he admitted.

The official said much before the official announcement of the project's end on August 30, it had become clear that the two-year mission would be cut short since 95% of the scientific goals had been accomplished.

Despite the failure of the star sensors, Chandrayaan-1 transmitted excellent images including that of the solar eclipse on July 22. Also at 12.30am on August 21, it flew along with Nasa's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) for four minutes to detect water ice in the north pole of the moon.

But worse was to follow. At 1.30am on August 29, communication with the spacecraft snapped all of a sudden. ISRO chairman Madhavan Nair has been quoted as saying that due to unforeseen radiation problems the two computers in the spacecraft controlling communication got affected resulting in the breakdown of communications. He has admitted that many of the heat-related problems were not anticipated at all, and it was definitely a learning experience.

"Keeping this in mind, Chandrayaan-2's thermal design will be strengthened to withstand more than 100 degrees Celsius," Alex told TOI on the sidelines of the recently concluded eighth international conference on low cost planetary mission conducted by the International Academy of Astronautics in Goa.

BARC is collaborating with ISRO to strengthen the radiation shield of Chandrayaan-2, slated for lift off in 2013 from Sriharikota. The average day temperature on the Moon's surface is 107 degrees Celsius, while the mean night temperature is -153 degree Celsius.

Although, ISRO claims that 95% of its planned experiments have been completed, it remains to be known whether payloads designed to operate at a 100-km orbit completed their missions. The issue has triggered a fierce debate on whether ISRO should have declared it a one-year mission right at the beginning rather than an ambitious two-year programme.

Among the experiments to be conducted from a 100km orbit were observations in the visible, near-infrared and soft and hard X-rays. Further, the Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument's objective was to provide ranging data for determining the height difference between the spacecraft and the lunar surface. Scientists admit that at an altitude of 200km, the return signal could be too weak for the purpose.

Chandrayaan's objectives also included orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100km for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the surface and its X-ray spectrometer was to use X-rays to map the surface composition of the Moon and help scientists understand its origin and evolution, as well as quantifying the mineral resources that exist there.

The spacecraft's 11 scientific instruments were built in India, USA, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria. The mission was formally called off on August 30 by ISRO, which said that a failure analysis committee will probe into the matter. ISRO chairperson G Madhavan Nair also said US and European space agencies who had also taken part in the Indian space mission "were satisfied" with the results.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-9-25 22:47 | 显示全部楼层


MIP detected water on Moon way back in June: ISRO Chairman

Bangalore, 九月 25, 2009

A day after the ground-breaking discovery of water on the moon hit headlines around the world, Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) G. Madhavan Nair has said that Chandrayaan-1 had detected water on the lunar surface as early as June 2009.

The indigenously developed Moon Impact Probe (MIP), which crash-landed at a designated site on the lunar south pole on November 14, 2008, had picked up “clear signatures” of water during its 25-minute descent, Mr. Nair said at a press conference here on Friday.

Analysis of the data from a mass spectrometer on the MIP pointed to the presence water, he added. The cuboid probe also bore the Indian tricolour thus “planting the Indian flag” on the moon when it landed.

This finding was later “confirmed” by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (or M3, developed by NASA) that established the presence of water and hydroxyl on the lunar surface. While ISRO knew about water presence “way back in June” they waited for the findings of NASA’s M3 to be published in the journal Science this week before announcing it, Mr. Nair said.

‘Epoch making’

Describing the discovery of water by the M3 as “epoch making”, J.N. Goswami, Principal Scientist, Chandrayaan-1, and Director of the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, said: “We had assumed that the moon was bone-dry. We have proved ourselves and others wrong.” If a good amount of water was found subsequently on the poles, this could become an important resource for future lunar explorations, he said.

Being the nearest object to earth, the moon could become a base for space exploration and a resource not just for water but also for fuel, said Mr. Nair when asked about the significance of the finding. “It was also a fine example of how the international scientific community can work together,” he said.

Chandrayaan-2 ‘revisited’

These new insights into the moon’s composition and presence of water molecules could prompt a “revisit” to the scientific goals of India’s second lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2, Mr. Nair said.

Chandrayaan-2, being readied for a 2013 launch, could therefore see a “mid-course correction” of its objectives, he, added.

The mission so far includes two rovers (one developed by the Russian space agency and the other by ISRO) which will move on the lunar surface to pick up soil for chemical analysis. The scientific instruments that the mission would carry were still being debated and several proposals had been coming in from India and abroad, Mr. Nair said.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-9-26 15:48 | 显示全部楼层


ISRO rethinks on Chandrayaan-II experiments

TNN 26 September 2009, 04:00am IST

BANGALORE: The discovery of water molecules on Moon by Chandrayaan-1 is all set to alter the course of Chandrayaan-2 scheduled for 2013. Isro  chairman G Madhavan Nair announced the significance of the discovery for India’s future Moon missions at the Isro headquarters, Bangalore, on Friday, hours after Nasa publicly acknowledged Isro’s partnership in this discovery.

Nair began with: ‘‘India has discovered water on Moon. It is a remarkable finding.’’ And added cheekily: ‘‘I would like to disagree with the media which has been saying Chandrayaan-1 is a failure, setback and all that. I believe it is a wonderful mission. I have been saying it is a 95% success, but now I want to say it is 110% success.’’

Describing the finding as ‘pathbreaking’, Nair said: ‘‘The discovery opens up many more questions about the Moon — how much water there is, the quantity, the extent, where it is located...’’

He went on: ‘‘We will revisit the scientific objectives of India’s second moon mission Chandrayaan-2. We’ll see if we can go beyond analysis of soil samples. We’ll explore how we can go down further on Moon, whether we can go down a few centimetres or half a metre... We’ll think of a deeper exploration of the Moon’s crust.’’

‘‘For this, there has to be a mid-course correction of the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-2. We will certainly do that.’’

On the progress of Chandrayaan-2, Nair said: ‘‘I am under terrific pressure — the number of proposals (for instruments) we have received is so high. We are full at the moment. We are in fact wondering whether and how to create extra capacity to carry all that. We will evaluate every proposal and examine them in the light of our objectives. The revised scientific objectives should be ready latest by March (2010). It takes three years from conception of mission to design. We are on schedule to launch Chandrayaan-2 in 2013.’’

Returning to the water discovery, Nair said: ‘‘With Chandrayaan-1, India has set the pattern for future explorations. Nasa is thinking of international cooperation in some of its future missions and has a group exclusively for that. Space from now on is global — about global cooperation.’’

The discovery has implications for inter-planetary explorations, Nair said. ‘‘There is abundant sunlight that can be converted into electricity. Hydrogen and oxygen could generate water. Rockets can be filled up. You can think of going to Mars from Moon. Moon could possibly become a base for inter-planetary exploration, manned or unmanned.’’
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-9-26 16:06 | 显示全部楼层


ISRO may jiggle Chandrayaan-II payloads after discovery of water news

25 September 2009

Bangalore: ISRO chairman G Madhavan Nair has confessed that the startling discovery of the presence of water in larger quantities than previously estimated has prompted scientists to rethink the experiments to be carried by the follow-on mission Chandrayaan-II. The mission is slated for launch by 2013.

Besides several in-orbit experiments ISRO also plans to land two rovers on the lunar surface.

"Following findings of Chandrayaan-I, it would have to now look at mid-course correction of its objectives. We have to fine-tune it. There is some loud thinking on the issue going on," ISRO chairman G Madhavan Nair informed the media in Bangalore.

Nair indicated that the lunar rover may well be equipped with instruments that could dig the lunar surface and carry out in-situ experiments.

Nearly all the scientific payloads on Chandrayaan-II will be Indian except the lunar rover which will be supplied by Russia. Nair indicated that ISRO was mulling options of sending a smaller indigenous version of the rover to the lunar surface.

Nair also said that scientists were also looking at the possibility of squeezing in extra payload onboard the Chandrayaan-II.

"Right now Chandrayaan-II is full," he said.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-9-30 09:54 | 显示全部楼层


 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-9-30 09:55 | 显示全部楼层


shaolin1254 发表于 2009-9-30 11:48 | 显示全部楼层
Nighthawk 发表于 2009-9-30 13:16 | 显示全部楼层
snowtiger 发表于 2009-9-30 13:34 | 显示全部楼层
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-17 10:23 | 显示全部楼层


ISRO plans to send miniaturised instruments on Chandrayaan-II

Bibhu Ranjan Mishra / Chennai/ Bangalore October 09, 2009, 0:07 IST

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) plans to send miniaturised payloads aboard the Chandrayaan-II satellite, in line with the international standards, though the weight of the satellite is expected to be about double that of Chandrayaan-I. The second moon mission by India aims to have fewer scientific instruments than the ones on Chandrayaan-I spacecraft.

Chandrayaan-I spacecraft carried 11 scientific payloads (According to ISRO, there were 16 instruments as some payloads carried more than one instrument) including five from India with a total weight of about 100 kg. While the weight of the smallest instrument was about 150 gm, the bigger one weighed around 10 kg.

“As a spin-off of Chandrayaan-I, we will now work on miniaturising the payloads during Chandrayaan-II. For example, the IRS cameras used earlier during the first mission were bulky, and now we want to make it light. Space instruments are really getting lighter the world over, and we will follow the same path,” M Annadurai, project director of Chandrayaan mission said.

He said, the weight of the instruments were brought down considerably during Chandrayaan-I, and the plan was to bring it down further.

On the contrary, the weight of the satellite to be used during Chandrayaan-II mission is expected to be much higher than that used during the previous mission as the satellite will now have more propellant. The Chandrayaan-I spacecraft weighed 1,380 kg when it lifted off, including the 800 kg of propellant. While orbiting the moon, the weight of the satellite was about 550 kg.

We expect Chandrayaan-II spacecraft to be nearly double the weight of the satellite used in the first mission and the propellant will also be almost double of that used in Chandrayaan-I,” Annadurai added.

In response to ISRO’s 'announcement of opportunities’ for Chandrayaan-I mission, space agencies from other countries had offered to send 26 instruments. Of this, six were selected after a rigorous evaluation process.

Following the success of Chandrayaan-I, especially after the discovery of water on lunar surface, ISRO is now getting much more proposals for carrying scientific payloads. “However, we can’t afford to carry so many payloads this time since the approach of the mission will be different now. We would try to carry more Indian payloads,” said Annadurai.
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-11-5 10:42 | 显示全部楼层


  [据印度时报网站2009年11月3日报道] 印度太空研究组织(ISRO)正在准备将更多高端工作外包给私人公司——从建造更复杂的系统到系统组装。来自印度宇航工业界官员和其他方面消息称,关于私人公司可以参与建造运行系统的建议正在拟定。

  宇航工业界的商业公司目前希望在太空任务中扮演更重要角色,承接ISRO提供的外包任务。ISRO 2009-2010财年预算达到10.1亿美元。印度计划投资载人航天探索领域30亿美元,为“月球航行”-2任务投资1.028亿美元。印度在火星任务和众多国内外卫星发射业务方面也有巨大的投资计划。
  印度目前发射到太空的卫星数量正不断增加。曾参与“月球航行”-1任务的ISRO高级太空科学家乔治·科希(George Koshy)称:“以前我们每两到三年才进行一次发射,现在我们每年要进行三到五次发射。因此,需要更多廉价劳动力和更好的合作。”并表示,印度需要更多私人合作者一起分担工作。
  打算将ISRO变为自己高级客户的印度Taneja 航空宇航公司(TAAL)说,ISRO将给该公司提供更高端的工作。该公司高层说,他们已经为ISRO研发了用于极轨卫星运载火箭(PSLV)关键结构。这一结构可以帮助承载火箭负荷,并连接PSLV的各个级段。
  印度维克拉姆-萨拉巴航天中心(VSSC)副主任PP Sinha称外包服务已经达到了私人公司可以参与系统和级段水平集成这样的程度,不再仅仅是元器件水平。
  印度最大的工程公司L&T称,正在与ISRO进行关于太空运载火箭的重要会谈。从小型元件做起,目前,完整发动机也由该公司建造而且还要进行试验。L&T还将为ISRO未来20颗卫星做出重要贡献。L&T与DMRL已经为ISRO本土生产海绵钛设计了专用反应堆。海绵钛是未来重要项目的战略材料之一。(中国航天工程咨询中心 侯丹 谢慧敏)

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