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[专题] 商业航天之:Boeing(波音)的CST-100/Starliner载人飞船:11月4日22:00 pad abort test

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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-8-5 09:05 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2011-8-5 09:36 编辑

阶段开发里程碑事件(部分)(计划):
      到正式服役有25个里程碑..A total of 25 milestones are...,不过眼下着重关注前11个..


~~2015底  正式服役飞行
~~2015  ..预定2015年进行3次试飞,在2015年可用于向国际空间站的客运飞行

~~2015-03  乘员飞行测试

~~2014-11 AAT 高空中断测试

~~2014-5  无人轨道飞行测试

~~2013-06 PAT 发射台中断测试

~~2012-06 (很可能推迟) 关键设计评审 CDR

~~2012  春天 初步设计评审 PDR

~~2012-04 降落伞Drop Test
   with a Parachute Drop Test demo on the books for next April.

~~2012-02  紧急中断检测系统 ..接口整合模拟测试..
    and the Launch Vehicle Emergency Detection System (EDS)/Avionics System Integration Facility Interface Simulation testing taking place.

~~2011-12   服务舱推进Tank 开发测试
  The run up to the PDR will include Service Module Propellant Tank Development Tests

~~2011-10    中期设计评审
      .. October will see the Interim Design Review (IDR) take place,

~~2011-09-03   第一阶段风洞测试
    ..to be followed by Phase 1 Wind Tunnel Tests.

~~2011-08  气囊着陆演示
    Boeing also plans to conduct a full-scale landing airbag drop demonstration later this summer.

   A Landing Air Bag drop demo was also on the manifest for August 1,


点评

回joki: 刚看到你的点评,不好意思,没有啊。  发表于 2011-9-14 10:14
插个话,美国飞船研制流程中都有高空中断测试这个环节,但是貌似神舟研制中没有看到相关报道。h版可有相关资料?  发表于 2011-8-6 10:12
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-8-5 09:08 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2011-8-5 09:09 编辑

Atlas V被选做CST-100发射载具

Atlas V wins again – Boeing selects launcher for their CST-100 capsuleAugust 4th, 2011 by Chris Bergin


                               
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    The United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V has once again found itself a new passenger, this time via the selection by Boeing to launch its CST-100 capsule as part of their Commercial Crew Development (CCDev-2) proposal. Providing NASA downselects Boeing’s vehicle for commercial missions to the ISS, CST-100 will debut in 2015, following two test flights earlier that year.

Atlas V For The Win:
The two stage rocket is driven by the Russian-built RD AMROSS RD-180 engine – a kerosene/liquid oxygen derivative of the RD-170 engine developed for the Zenit boosters of the Energia rocket – with a Centaur Upper Stage powered by Pratt & Whitney’s RL10 engine burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. Atlas V configurations can include Aerojet strap-on boosters.

The vehicle is fast becoming the post-Shuttle human launcher of choice, with Dream Chaser – a vehicle in the Sierra Nevada Corporation stable – along with Blue Origin and their biconic-shape capsule, already signed up for launches pending their continuation with NASA’s commercial crew program – or possibly via their own commercial ambitions.

See Also
With 26 unmanned launches under its belt since its maiden launch in 2002, the Atlas V has a 100 percent mission success rate and will continue to launch major payloads – such as Friday’s Juno mission to Jupiter on behalf of NASA.
The Atlas V selection by Boeing confirmed what was always likely, as much as the CST-100 had three other options; ULA’s Delta IV, SpaceX’s Falcon 9 and ATK’s Liberty LV.

  “We are pleased Boeing selected the Atlas V rocket and believe it is the right vehicle to help usher in the new commercial era in human spaceflight,” said George Sowers, ULA vice president of Business Development. “The Atlas V is a cost-effective, reliable vehicle and ULA stands ready to support Boeing’s commercial human spaceflight program.”


According to Dr Sowers, the Atlas V will fly in the 412 configuration,   involving one solid strap-on booster and a dual-engine Centaur Upper Stage.
The Commercial Crew program consists of developing, manufacturing, testing and evaluating, and demonstrating the CST-100 spacecraft, launch vehicle and ground/mission operations – all part of Boeing’s Commercial Crew Transportation System – for NASA’s new Commercial Crew human spaceflight program that will provide access to the International Space Station.
The CST-100 is a reusable, capsule-shaped spacecraft that includes a crew module and a service module. It relies on proven, affordable materials and subsystem technologies that can transport up to seven people, or a combination of people and cargo.
Boeing are one of four companies to win CCDev-2 awards – and received the largest sum at over $92m. Their CST-100 capsule is compatible with multiple launch vehicles, as much as Atlas V is now confirmed as the initial LV, and can be reused for up to ten missions following a nominal land landing.
Boeing plans to begin wind tunnel testing of the Atlas V and the CST-100 this year and will use the results to complete a preliminary design review of the integrated system in 2012 under the second round of its Commercial Crew Development Space Act Agreement with NASA.
A total of 25 milestones are listed in the Boeing released presentation for CCDev-2, although it is heavily censored, listing only 11 of the milestones, the latter of which will be the Preliminary Design Review (PDR). By the conclusion of the CCDev-2 funding period, Boeing also claim they will be 80 percent complete on their Critical Design Review (CDR).


According to a new CCDev-2 presentation available on L2 – which also avoided listing all 25 milestones – development kicked off with a Delta Systems Definition Review, followed by a Phase 0 Safety review, both of which were completed in May. A Landing Air Bag drop demo was also on the manifest for August 1, to be followed by Phase 1 Wind Tunnel Tests.
October will see the Interim Design Review (IDR) take place, with a Parachute Drop Test demo on the books for next April.
The run up to the PDR will include Service Module Propellant Tank Development Tests and the Launch Vehicle Emergency Detection System (EDS)/Avionics System Integration Facility Interface Simulation testing taking place.
Notably, the EDS testing closely matches the work on the Atlas V Human Rating effort, which is being undertaken as an unfunded Space Act Agreement (SAA), as announced as part of Atlas V’s role with the Dream Chaser spacecraft.
Boeing claim they will be ready to provide services by 2015, a target date which is being used by most of the CCDev-2 award winners.
“This selection marks a major step forward in Boeing’s efforts to provide NASA with a proven launch capability as part of our complete commercial crew transportation service,” said John Elbon, vice president and program manager of Commercial Crew Programs and the source selection official for Boeing.
If NASA selects Boeing for a development contract with sufficient funding, ULA will provide launch services for an autonomous orbital flight, a transonic autonomous abort test launch, and a crewed launch, all in 2015.
(Images:  Boeing)  (As the shuttle fleet retire, NSF and L2 are providing full transition level coverage, available no where else on the internet, from Orion and SLS to ISS and COTS/CRS/CCDEV, to European and Russian vehicles.







joki 发表于 2011-8-5 16:23 | 显示全部楼层
除了Blue Origin可能是陪太子读书外,Dragon、CST100、追梦都各有优势,奈何4进2,必须要死2个。
NASA想获得一个低过载的升力体构型,这样追梦就拥有特别的优势。CST100仰仗波音强大的技术基础,应该是可靠性最高的一个。Dragon风头正劲,进度可能是最快的。私以为,两个载人航天器都选飞船的可能性比较低,就看最后谁会悲壮出局了。

点评

这么多载人飞船确实让人怀疑用武之地在那里,正在开发的+MPCV有5艘之多,死2个还剩3个呢。  发表于 2011-8-5 17:06
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-5 17:20 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2011-8-5 18:00 编辑

可能是因为DC原型曾是NASA自己的孩子吧,NASA确实偏爱DC,不但从CCDev 2选型上,NSF上有人提到NASA甚至还因为DC的对接方式而修改了通用对接口的设计。
不过最终还是要看技术成熟度和使用成本,虽然我也很喜欢DC,但坦白讲挑战很大,除了对接口受尾喷口干扰外,升力体构型在发射时带来的侧向力矩以及发射逃逸时的“black zone”都是需要克服的。

PS:Atlas V 412,看来CST-100个头不小

点评

作为一个曾经拥有航天飞机的国家,这些技术问题应该是可以克服的,就是不知道商业队”内华达山脉“有没有这能耐了。追梦造型比较有爱,不少人还是希望能够有个升力体/有翼跑道降落的载人构型接班。  发表于 2011-8-5 20:38
Atlas V 412难道是捆绑1个小固推的不对称构型?LEO上14吨了吧。。。  发表于 2011-8-5 20:29
joki 发表于 2011-8-5 20:42 | 显示全部楼层
算上”国家队“的猎户、”商业队“的CST100、Dragon,还有个神龙见首不见尾Blue Origin,大大小小三四种飞船,太多了。也难怪NASA想保住追梦,后面几年飞船组可要杀得头破血流了。
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-5 21:10 | 显示全部楼层
joki Atlas V 412难道是捆绑1个小固推的不对称构型?LEO上14吨了吧。。。  
————————————————————————————
是的

PS:从再入方式看,Blue Origin的bi-conical返回舱更接近“侧面进入”的DC而非“底部进入”的CST-100,如果算上落选得OSC有翼体方案,正好3v3
joki 发表于 2011-8-6 09:24 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 joki 于 2011-8-6 09:27 编辑
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-5 21:10
joki Atlas V 412难道是捆绑1个小固推的不对称构型?LEO上14吨了吧。。。  
—————————————— ...

LEO14吨是200km@28°的指标?这么看来CST100尺寸、质量应该跟罗斯飞船差不多,也是12吨级的飞船。神舟之后,也可能以四助推版CZ7搞12.5吨级的新飞船,还真是巧。
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-7 11:10 | 显示全部楼层
Boeing的声明里提到在2015年将使用Atlas V-412进行三次发射试验,包括一次无人轨道发射,一次跨音速发射逃逸和一次由两名波音公司宇航员完成的载人轨道飞行。
F-117 发表于 2011-8-7 20:20 | 显示全部楼层
美国波音公司计划让员工前往国际空间站

这可能是史上最诱人的公司福利:在波音干活,去太空旅行!美国波音公司周五表示,计划让员工搭乘它的CST-100太空舱前往国际空间站。CST-100太空舱承担波音公司开展太空旅行业务的重任,预计2015年第一次升空。

  美国“亚特兰蒂斯号”航天飞机7月23日重返地球,为长达30年的“航天飞机时代”画下句点,同时昭示私人公司开展太空业务的百家争鸣时代揭幕。CST-100就是波音公司建造的太空舱,将提供商业载人服务和国际空间站维修等服务,最大目标是实现太空旅行。CST-100比阿波罗宇宙飞船稍微宽敞一些,底座直径大约4.5米,可以反复使用10次。

  按照计划,2015年CST-100太空舱将由“阿特拉斯5”型火箭搭载升空,其中两次为不载人发射:一次会把太空舱送入预定轨道,一次将试验太空舱发生意外时的对应之策。如果进展顺利,第三次发射将携带两名宇航员停靠国际空间站,为2016年正式开展国际空间站之旅铺平道路。

  据报道,波音公司计划CST-100第三次升空的宇航员能由公司员工担任。美国《大众科技》杂志“建议”,太空迷们注意了,如果这辈子自费航天旅行希望渺茫,不妨立即开始向波音公司投简历,说不定有机会享用太空游福利。
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-8 21:45 | 显示全部楼层
Boeing开始招募宇航员

Boeing Needs Space Pilots for Spaceship & Rocket Test Flights

Elbon said Boeing is currently looking for astronaut candidates to fly on the CST-100 spacecraft and while spaceflight experience is not required, former NASA astronauts are welcome to apply.

http://www.space.com/12544-boeing-space-test-pilot-rocket-launches-cst-100.html
祖国之翼 发表于 2011-8-16 14:21 | 显示全部楼层
看惯了两舱阿波罗,乍一看这个还真有点不适应
一笑方圆 发表于 2011-9-13 14:51 | 显示全部楼层
比较喜欢俄国的钟形和猎户座的锥形,这个不伦不类的,我晕。
cmj9808 发表于 2011-9-13 19:04 | 显示全部楼层
CST-100和阿波罗是一样的,双舱结构+锥形指令舱
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-9-14 09:55 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2011-9-14 10:09 编辑

视频(+动画):波音测试CST-100气囊着陆系统。
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2011/09/13/video-boeing-tests-cst-100-air-bag-landing-system/

PS:知道联盟神舟在着陆瞬间用的是反冲发动机作为最后缓冲,不知道'阿波罗'和SpaceX的‘龙’ 以及 ‘猎户座’ 用的是什么呢?


cmj9808 发表于 2011-9-14 14:22 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-9-14 09:55
视频(+动画):波音测试CST-100气囊着陆系统。
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2011/09/13/video-boeing-test ...

水中着陆靠水提供缓冲

HIB splash test.jpg
dodge 发表于 2011-9-14 15:54 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-9-14 09:55
视频(+动画):波音测试CST-100气囊着陆系统。
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2011/09/13/video-boeing-test ...

关于阿波罗指令舱的着陆缓冲系统的构成,可以参考Apollo Operations Handbook Block II Volume I,里面有比较详细的介绍。可以注意到指令舱是以倾斜的方式下降并溅落水面的,以确保外部缓冲结构是最先受到冲击的部分,通过结构变形最大程度地吸收撞击的能量。

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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-9-14 17:03 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-9-14 09:55
视频(+动画):波音测试CST-100气囊着陆系统。
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2011/09/13/video-boeing-test ...

又复习了一遍文字。记得猎户座有陆地版本,这里说气囊厂家也在为猎户工作.
The air bags, manufactured by ILC Dover, a leader in inflatable products, use the same technology as the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover programs. Those programs were responsible for the Sojourner, Spirit and Opportunity rovers on Mars. McKinney, an expert in air bag design, analysis and testing for the past 15 years, has worked on NASA’s Mars Pathfinder and Orion capsule projects

点评

过去式,以前工作过,ha。  发表于 2011-9-14 17:09
axsuper 发表于 2011-10-9 14:15 | 显示全部楼层
不明白,发射CST-100时,不需要逃逸塔,那怎么逃逸呢?

点评

在side wall,和spaceX的‘龙’一个套路,在飞船上重复使用。爬楼.  发表于 2011-10-9 14:38
cmj9808 发表于 2011-10-9 19:54 | 显示全部楼层
CST-100的LAS由位于服务舱后部的四台RS-88(or RS-88-derived)引擎组成,不重复使用,具体参见本帖7#

点评

这评论也不能删,看来问题不这么简单 。  发表于 2011-10-9 20:29
其实,我原来的意思是,如果逃逸没用上的话(正常发射),可重复地用在轨道机动或着陆时。  发表于 2011-10-9 20:26
哈,我说错了。  发表于 2011-10-9 20:23
cmj9808 发表于 2011-10-10 10:39 | 显示全部楼层
逃逸系统和RCS共用推进剂,如果逃逸系统没有使用的话推进剂将用于轨道机动,但逃逸系统发动机不在轨道使用,因为发射逃逸时的瞬间加速度在8g以上,RS-88的推力50,000磅(22.7吨),对于轨道机动来说推力太大了。

PS:着陆的时候倒是可以用,但是CST-100不像Dragon那样整合在侧壁,所以在再入之前就抛掉了。
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