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[科普] 自由空间光通讯与星间激光链路/更新:携带国产实验载荷的HY-2号升空!

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hkhtg090201 发表于 2010-7-19 20:45 | 显示全部楼层
Astrium与Cisco公司研究天基路由器  

新闻发布时间:2010-07-19

  [本站2010年7月19日综合报道]  阿斯特里厄姆服务公司(Astrium Services)与思科公司(Cisco)达成协议,将共同研究未来的太空IP路由器应用。
  
  太空路由器起到空中计算机的作用,可以实现将众多频段的大量数据合并,并一步转发至地面多个接收器上。使用太空路由器就不再需要依靠运输站路由数据,能极大提高数据、音频、视频的下载速率。
  
  合作之初,两家公司将研发一个搭载型路由器有效载荷(按照美国国防部联合能力演示项目有效载荷由思科负责向Intelsat 14卫星提供),以及如何利用阿斯特里厄姆公司的通信服务和有效载荷处理能力,以更好地服务用户。阿斯特里厄姆公司的军事卫星通信供应商子公司Paradigm将与思科公司进行第一项研究,预计2010年1月结束。
  
  Intelsat 14卫星于2009年11月发射,搭载其上的“太空因特网路由器”(IRIS)有效载荷将链接一个C波段和两个KU波段,覆盖多个区域,15个月的演示验证结束后,卫星将转而提供商业服务。
  
  阿斯特里厄姆公司表示这项研究将寻求确定一份更加多元化的服务,提供给偏远区域,例如,关键的管理、紧急医疗保健,或者移动军事作战。之后,合作将扩展到其他太空路由器的应用上。 (中国航天工程咨询中心  许红英 侯丹)
peteroof 发表于 2010-7-20 07:52 | 显示全部楼层
国内的可以关注一下长春理工大学的研究,动对动。现在在做2期
 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-8-16 14:29 | 显示全部楼层
挖个坟,很感慨啊,呵呵。
现在最大的疑问是:HY-2号上面的载荷是人畜无害的LEO-Ground链路,还是很腹黑的LEO-Submarine链路!个人估计是前者。

点评

前者无疑。  发表于 2011-8-22 21:21
 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-8-22 21:09 | 显示全部楼层

更新:NASA正在研发中的LADEE任务将验证LLCD载荷。

NASA目前正在研发的“月球大气与尘埃探测器”(LADEE)将采用MIT林肯实验室为之研发的激光通信/测距一体载荷LLCD(Lunar Laser Com Demonstration)。类似载荷在2003年之前就已经开始研发,用于“火星通信轨道器”(MTO),但MTO项目在2005年NASA的项目调整中被砍掉,类似技术被保留下来,如果顺利将在2013年LADEE执行任务期间进行载荷验证。LADEE是一颗低成本小型月球探测器,计划由美国“米诺陶”5号小型运载火箭发射(其地月转移轨道运载能力为447kg),星上电源总功率约为295W。而LLCD向地球发射的数据下行激光发射功率仅有0.5W,星上终端的光学孔径仅有10cm,地面接收终端光学孔径仅有40cm;上行激光信号的地面终端光学孔径仅有16cm,功率为10W。计划中的月-地激光通信链路的下行数据率为622Mbps,上行数据率为20Mbps。在测距工作状态月-地终端之间进行应答式反馈测距方式,即地面向LLCD终端发出测距脉冲,接收之后立即向地面反馈应答脉冲,计划实现厘米级的测距精度。相比之下,LADEE上的主通信天线位于S波段,速率仅有20kbps。激光通信链路中收/发天线的孔径均比相当数据率下的无线电通信的天线孔径小一个数量级左右。
 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-8-22 21:12 | 显示全部楼层
LADEE Project Manager Update08.02.11

NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) has passed its most significant mission milestone to date, the Mission Critical Design Review, or MCDR. This means the LADEE observatory is cleared to go forward and complete the flight hardware fabrication necessary to meet all science and engineering requirements for its 2013 mission to explore the moon.

LADEE will gather detailed information about conditions near the surface and environmental influences on lunar dust. A thorough understanding of these influences will help researchers predict how future lunar exploration may shape the moon's environment and how the environment may affect future explorers. It also will help scientists understand other planetary bodies with exospheres, or very thin atmospheres, like the moon.

The LADEE team now is preparing for the Systems Integration Review (SIR) later in 2011, which assesses the readiness to perform the final integration of the spacecraft. Integration and testing activities are scheduled to begin in January 2012 at Ames.

"The LADEE mission represents an exciting opportunity to build the first low-cost, small satellite in-house at Ames in more than 30 years," said Butler Hine, LADEE project manager. "LADEE has the most complex Lunar flight path – a low-altitude retrograde equatorial orbit – that NASA will attempt since the Apollo missions."

Although the MCDR approved the mission design and gave the official go-ahead for manufacturing, hardware development on the spacecraft's lightweight, carbon-composite, modular primary structure components have been in progress for several years.

The propulsion system and structure is being built by Space Systems/Loral, Palo Alto, Calif. The modular common bus sections are being built by Vanguard Space Technologies., San Diego, Calif., the spacecraft's solar panels are being manufactured by Emcore Corp., Albuquerque New Mexico; the communications systems is being built by Space Micro Inc., San Diego, Calif., ABSL of Colorado will provide the batteries to power LADEE; the star trackers that will help spacecraft navigate will be provided Denmark Technical University; the reaction wheels that help steer the spacecraft are being built by Microsat Systems Canada Inc.

LADEE uses a common spacecraft bus design that helps the mission achieve its science objectives. NASA engineers expect this design will enable many future, low-cost inter-planetary missions.

NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington funds the LADEE mission, a cooperative effort between NASA’s Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages LADEE within the Lunar Quest Program Office. NASA Wallops Flight Facility will be responsible for the launch vehicle and range operations.

For more information about LADEE, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/ladee
 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-8-22 21:18 | 显示全部楼层

Lincoln Laboratory begins work on Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration

本帖最后由 Nighthawk 于 2011-8-22 21:20 编辑

MIT Lincoln Laboratory has begun developing a laser communications system that will demonstrate high-data-rate communications between a lunar-orbiting NASA satellite and a ground site in the U.S. The Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) will address NASA's need for very-high-rate, very-long-distance communications systems that are small enough to fly in space.The LLCD will demonstrate the transmission of over 600 megabits per second using only a 4-inch telescope and a 1/2-watt laser installed on the lunar-orbiting satellite. The ground receiver will be nearly ten times more efficient than any optical receiver ever demonstrated at these high rates. It will incorporate a pair of two-foot-diameter telescopes, each with its own very-high-performance light detector based on superconducting technology developed in a collaboration between Lincoln Laboratory and the Quantum Nanostructures and Nanofabrication Group at MIT.
The Lincoln Laboratory–built LLCD space terminal will be carried on a NASA technology demonstration and science mission spacecraft named the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), which is planned to launch in late 2011. The LADEE mission will be a collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA Ames Research Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Current science missions to the Moon and to the planets are constrained by the amount of data they can communicate back over the long distances. Astronauts will also require high-data-rate communications during future space missions. Because the free-space optical spectral bands are not regulated by the Federal Communications Commission or the International Telecommunications Union, extremely high data rates can be transmitted, as long as the system can deliver enough power to the receiver. Since wavelengths are more than 10,000 times shorter in the optical band than in the radio bands, small telescopes and small amounts of laser power can be used to deliver power adequate to support very high data rates, even over long distances.
Lincoln Laboratory has been developing and demonstrating the technologies for free-space and, especially, space-based laser communications for over 25 years. In 2001, a Lincoln Laboratory team built and demonstrated the world's first high-rate, space-based laser communications system. From 2003 to 2005, the Laboratory played a lead role in NASA's Mars Laser Communications Demonstration project, which laid the groundwork for the LLCD.
Posted October 2008
http://www.ll.mit.edu/news/lunarlasercomm.html

 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-8-22 21:20 | 显示全部楼层

High-availability free-space laser communications are demonstrated

本帖最后由 Nighthawk 于 2011-8-22 21:21 编辑

In a five-month rapid development effort, the Advanced Lasercom Systems and Operations Group at MIT Lincoln Laboratory modeled, designed, built, integrated, and fielded two custom 2.7 gigabaud (2.7 billion symbols per second) lasercom terminals at field sites located in the western suburbs of Boston and separated by 5.4 kilometers of wooded countryside. The field-site effort, which culminated with data collection throughout much of September 2008, verified high-availability communications over the link by using modest, eye-safe levels of optical power. Potential applications for these lasercom terminals include networking for forces on the move and transmission of aggregated tactical data in theater. Because the characteristics of the ground-to-ground link are similar to those of a much longer air-to-ground link, the demonstration results can be extrapolated to applications such as the offload of remote sensing data from aircraft to the ground.

阅读全文链接:
http://www.ll.mit.edu/news/freespace-lasercom.html

seu2002 发表于 2011-8-22 21:22 | 显示全部楼层

我看NASA用PPM+SCCC,采用迭代接收机进行解调和译码。
hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-9-24 21:40 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2011-9-24 21:41 编辑

NASA to Demonstrate Communications Via Laser Beam
Published by Klaus Schmidt on Fri Sep 23, 2011 6:37 am


     NASA, Laser Communications, LCRDIt currently takes 90 minutes to transmit high-resolution images from Mars, but NASA would like to dramatically reduce that time to just minutes. A new optical communications system that NASA plans to demonstrate in 2016 will lead the way and even allow the streaming of high-definition video from distances beyond the Moon.

   This dramatically enhanced transmission speed will be demonstrated by the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD), one of three projects selected by NASA’s Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) for a trial run. To be developed by a team led by engineers at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., LCRD is expected to fly as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite developed by Space Systems/Loral, of Palo Alto, Calif.


Conceptual image of LCRD. Credit: NASA

“We want to take NASA’s communications capabilities to the next level,” said LCRD Principal Investigator Dave Israel, who is leading a multi-organizational team that includes NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. and Lincoln Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Although NASA has developed higher data-rate radio frequency systems, data-compression, and other techniques to boost the amount of data that its current systems can handle, the Agency’s capabilities will not keep pace with the projected data needs of advanced instruments and future human exploration, Israel added.

“Just as the home Internet user hit the wall with dial-up, NASA is approaching the limit of what its existing communications network can handle,” he said.

The solution is to augment NASA’s legacy radio-based network, which includes a fleet of tracking and data relay satellites and a network of ground stations, with optical systems, which could increase data rates by anywhere from 10 to 100 times. “This transition will take several years to complete, but the eventual payback will be very large increases in the amount of data we can transmit, both downlink and uplink, especially to distant destinations in the solar system and beyond,” said James Reuther, director of OCT’s Crosscutting Technology Demonstrations Division.

First Step

The LCRD is the next step in that direction, Israel said, likening the emerging capability to land-based fiber-optic systems, such as Verizon’s FiOS network. “In a sense, we’re moving FiOS to space.”

To demonstrate the new capability, the Goddard team will encode digital data and transmit the information via laser light from specially equipped ground stations to an experimental payload hosted on the commercial communications satellite.

The payload will include telescopes, lasers, mirrors, detectors, a pointing and tracking system, control electronics, and two different types of modems. One modem is ideal for communicating with deep space missions or tiny, low-power smallsats operating in low-Earth orbit. The other can handle much higher data rates, particularly from Earth-orbiting spacecraft, including the International Space Station. “With the higher-speed modem type, future systems could support data rates of tens of gigabits per second,” Israel said.

Once the payload receives the data, it would then relay it back to ground stations now scheduled to operate in Hawaii and Southern California.

The multiple ground stations are important to demonstrating a fully operational system, Israel said. Cloud cover and turbulent atmospheric conditions impede laser communications, requiring a clear line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. If bad weather prevents a signal from being sent or received at one location, the network could hand over the responsibility to one of the other ground stations or store it for later retransmission.

The demonstration is expected to run two to three years.

Follow-On to LADEE Experiment

The project isn’t NASA’s first foray into laser communications. Goddard engineers are now developing a laser communications payload for NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), which the Agency plans to launch in 2013 to characterize the Moon’s wisp-thin atmosphere and dust environment. The main goal of the LADEE experiment is proving fundamental concepts of laser-based communications and transferring up to 622 megabits per second, which is about five times the current state-of-the-art from lunar distances.

However, the LADEE payload, called the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), is equipped with only one modem, the lower-speed model best suited for deep space communications. In addition, LADEE is a short-duration mission. LLCD is expected to operate for only 16 days of the LADEE mission, not enough time to demonstrate a fully operational laser-communications network, Israel said.

“What we’re trying to do is get ahead of the curve,” Israel said. “We want to get to the point where communications is no longer a constraint on scientists who want to gather more data, but are worried about getting their data back from space.”

http://spacefellowship.com/news/art26739/nasa-to-demonstrate-communications-via-laser-beam.html

cmj9808 发表于 2011-10-5 21:02 | 显示全部楼层
ESA也开始搞星间激光链路,2014年Eutelsat 9B 上搭载载荷,2015年发射一颗基于OHB的小型GEO平台的专用TDRS卫星,传输速率为1.8Gbps

Astrium, ESA Sign Deal for High-speed Data Relay System

http://www.spacenews.com/civil/111004-astrium-esa-sign-deal.html
 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-12-4 03:36 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Nighthawk 于 2011-12-4 03:38 编辑


                               
登录/注册后可看大图

欧洲新一代数据中继卫星的愿景:
在2015年前后发射两颗带有LCT(LaserCom Terminal)终端专用数据中继卫星,一颗的平台还在论证中,可能采用Astrium E3000平台;一颗将采用德国OHB公司的小型GEO平台。两颗中继卫星是专用的数据中继卫星,没有测控功能,也就是TDRS里面的那个Tracking。
之前LCT在德美联合开展的LCTSX实验中已经得到在轨验证,在德国的TerraSAR-X卫星和美国的nFIRE卫星之前建立了LEO-LEO链路。EDRS系统中使用的LCT由此改进而来,由于距离大大增加,激光发射功率由1.5W增大到5W,光学孔径也相应增大,速率由5.6Gbps降为1.8Gbps。
LEO轨道上的首批LCT将安装在GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security)计划的哨兵1和哨兵2号卫星上,前者为SAR星,后者为多光谱遥感卫星。卫星与EDRS星之间除了有LCT之间的链路,还有Ka波段的RF链路,估计是为了增加可用性。EDRS与地面站之间的数据下午采用Ka波段而不是空地激光通信链路。这个可以理解是为了保证全天候的可用性。注意两颗中继卫星之间没有星间链路。这与美军的转型性卫星通信系统不同,后者将在GEO卫星之间建立100Gbps的星间激光通信链路,预计发射时间在2016年之后。
 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-12-4 04:04 | 显示全部楼层
关于德美联合开展的LCTSX实验:
于2008年执行,在两颗LEO卫星(德国的合成孔径雷达卫星TerraSAR-X和美国导弹防御局的NFIRE技术实验卫星)之间建立了5.5Gbps的高速星间通信链路,采用BPSK调制、相干探测体制。
LCT的制造商为德国Tesat公司:http://www.tesat.de/index.php?op ... emid=60&lang=en
LCT外型:
AIAA-2011-7359-356.jpg
建立链路的动画演示:
http://www.tesat.de/images/stories/mov/Flugsimulation.mov

点评

感谢分享精美照片!  发表于 2011-12-4 09:37
 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-12-4 18:08 | 显示全部楼层
个人理解的LCT结构:
AIAA-2011-7359-356.jpg

点评

这个没有新的公开报道,我也无从谈起,目前已知的就是在海洋二号上搭载了实验载荷  发表于 2011-12-4 19:24
谈谈TG的进展?  发表于 2011-12-4 19:19
 楼主| Nighthawk 发表于 2011-12-5 00:58 | 显示全部楼层
国内的跟踪研究
资料区:[pdf][激光测控通信]《航天测控通信新体制研究》
http://www.9ifly.cn/forum.php?mo ... 834&fromuid=216
i2000s 发表于 2011-12-5 03:23 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 i2000s 于 2011-12-4 14:36 编辑

还有这个资料跟踪贴:
卫星激光通信的链路和终端技术

PS:发个积分达到28888的截图~

中将积分28888

中将积分28888
mir-2 发表于 2012-1-21 22:56 | 显示全部楼层
Nighthawk 发表于 2011-8-16 14:29
挖个坟,很感慨啊,呵呵。
现在最大的疑问是:HY-2号上面的载荷是人畜无害的LEO-Ground链路,还是很腹黑的 ...
  1. 目前,我校研制的星-地激光通信终端已确定在某卫星上搭载,进行激光通信演示验证试验(预计2008年发射),下一步将进入工程样机的研制阶段。由于该项技术是跨学科、多领域技术系统的集成,且项目投资比较大(总投资约12亿元左右),将对我校精密加工、精密机电控制、空间光学工程、卫星通信技术及光电元器件技术等相关学科的发展产生有力的带动作用,因此被确定为我校科研“十一五”的一个重大标志性项目。
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http://www.cunews.edu.cn/html2006/jyxw/124608612.htm

这是05年底的新闻。。。。没说是啥卫星


http://news.hit.edu.cn/articles/2010/03-22/03170538.htm
探索特色显明的一流大学创新体系
  1. 星一地激光数字通信技术研究:目前正在积极准备,预计2008年搭载“海洋2号”卫星,完成终端的科学试验演示验证。项目的完成将使我国的航天、国防、军事、民用等卫星通信达到世界领先水平,将产生不可估量的社会效益和经济效益。
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这是06年9月20日校报上总结十五期间成果的报道,里面已经明确提到了HY-2。

点评

该项目总投资12亿元,HY2要几十亿。。。。。。  发表于 2012-1-22 13:19
mir-2 发表于 2012-1-21 23:29 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mir-2 于 2012-1-21 23:31 编辑

http://zsb.cust.edu.cn/ArticleShow.asp?ArticleID=2290

光电领域里的一支尖兵—记长春理工大学空间光电技术科技创新团队
  1. 姜会林。。。。他在国际上首次提出了“衍生二级光谱理论”,并提出了“用普通玻璃校正二级光谱”的设计方法,根据这些理论与方法设计的“侦察卫星相机光学系统”,二级光谱象差为零,该成果被著名科学家王大珩院士评价为“近年来中国光学设计主要进展”之一,比英国著名专家设计的结构更为简单,质量更好。
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  1. 他高质量地完成了“863”重点攻关课题——“三维遥感测量用半导体泵浦固体激光器”的研究,打破了一些国家对我国的技术封锁,填补了我国这一领域的空白,为我国重大工程建设提供了重要技术成果。
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  1. 2007年10月至12月,课题组进行野外演示验证试验。。。佟首峰教授。。。先后对复合轴高精度跟踪关键技术实验系统进行6次改进,成功研制了高精度、宽带复合轴APT跟踪系统,动态跟踪精度为亚微弧度级,达到世界先进水平。
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  1. 张立中教授及其小组成员负责机载设备关键技术,系统复杂,难度很大。在试验必须成功的信念支撑下,他克服了水上长时间试验难以忍受的呕吐和眩晕,圆满完成海上试验任务,为项目的顺利进行获得了宝贵的数据。
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  1. 在团队成员的共同努力下,2007年他们被教育部批准为“光电测控与光信息传输技术教育部重点实验室”,随后不久又被国防科工委批准为“空地激光通信技术国防重点学科实验室”和首批“国防科技创新团队”,成为国内开展空间激光通信科学研究、人才培养的重要基地。掌声未落,实验室被吉林省发改委批准为“空间光电技术工程研究中心”。2008年,又被吉林省科技厅批准为“吉林省空间光电技术重点实验室”……
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haojiang77 发表于 2012-1-22 18:28 | 显示全部楼层
谈谈毛国的发展把
mir-2 发表于 2012-1-22 22:31 | 显示全部楼层
  1. 该项目总投资12亿元,HY2要几十亿。。。。。。  
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遥感系列普遍都得十个亿左右吧?

PS:我在插入内容中编辑颜色。。。怎么没反应呢
cmj9808 发表于 2012-4-11 12:54 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-9-24 21:40
NASA to Demonstrate Communications Via Laser Beam
Published by Klaus Schmidt on Fri Sep 23, 2011 6: ...

NASA选择SS/Loral的LS-1300作为LCRD的搭载平台

http://www.ssloral.com/html/pressreleases/pr20120410.html
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