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[任务跟踪] ISRO“月船一号”跟踪贴:5月19日提升轨道至200km

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HaleBoppComet 发表于 2010-3-2 16:43 | 显示全部楼层

美科学家发现月球北极含有6亿吨水冰(图)

法新社3月2日消息美国宇航局科学家3月1日说,美国雷达发现,月球北极40多个陨石坑含有6亿吨水冰。

据报道,美国航天局Mini-SAR雷达发现,月球北极有40多个大小不等(大约1.6至15公里)的陨石坑,每个陨石坑都充满水冰。

美国航天局科学家说,“尽管整个水冰的厚度取决于每个陨石坑中水冰的厚度,但估计至少有6亿吨水冰。”

报道说,这项发现是奥巴马建议取消美国重返月球计划的几周后发现的。


                               
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snowtiger 发表于 2010-3-2 17:35 | 显示全部楼层
月球极区着陆器好像还没有过吧?看看谁啥时候扔一个过去。
Nighthawk 发表于 2010-3-2 17:45 | 显示全部楼层
极区着陆器与地球直接通讯不畅,得先扔个中继星过去
HaleBoppComet 发表于 2010-3-2 17:53 | 显示全部楼层
这条新闻的最后一句话是亮点
不过美国现在正忙着收割欧洲 NASA着急也没用
cmj9808 发表于 2010-3-2 20:16 | 显示全部楼层
原文如下,这是成心给Obama添堵啊

Using data from a NASA radar that flew aboard India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, scientists have detected ice deposits near the moon's north pole. NASA's Mini-SAR instrument, a lightweight, synthetic aperture radar, found more than 40 small craters with water ice. The craters range in size from 1 to 9 miles (2 to15 km) in diameter. Although the total amount of ice depends on its thickness in each crater, it's estimated there could be at least 600 million metric tons of water ice.

The Mini-SAR has imaged many of the permanently shadowed regions that exist at both poles of the Moons. These dark areas are extremely cold and it has been hypothesized that volatile material, including water ice, could be present in quantity here.  The main science object of the Mini-SAR experiment is to map and characterize any deposits that exist.

Mini-SAR is a lightweight (less than 10 kg) imaging radar.  It uses the polarization properties of reflected radio waves to characterize surface properties.  Mini-SAR sends pulses of radar that are left-circular polarized.  Typical planetary surfaces reverse the polarization during the reflection of radio waves, so that normal echoes from Mini-SAR are right circular polarized.  The ratio of received power in the same sense transmitted (left circular) to the opposite sense (right circular) is called the circular polarization ratio (CPR).  Most of the Moon has low CPR, meaning that the reversal of polarization is the norm, but some targets have high CPR.  These include very rough, fresh surfaces (such as a young, fresh crater) and ice, which is transparent to radio energy and multiply scatters the pulses, leading to an enhancement in same sense reflections and hence, high CPR.  CPR is not uniquely diagnostic of either roughness or ice; the science team must take into account the environment of the occurrences of high CPR signal to interpret its cause.

Numerous craters near the poles of the Moon have interiors that are in permanent sun shadow.  These areas are very cold and water ice is stable there essentially indefinitely.  Fresh craters show high degrees of surface roughness (high CPR) both inside and outside the crater rim, caused by sharp rocks and block fields that are distributed over the entire crater area.  However, Mini-SAR has found craters near the north pole that have high CPR inside, but not outside their rims.  This relation suggests that the high CPR is not caused by roughness, but by some material that is restricted within the interiors of these craters.  We interpret this relation as consistent with water ice present in these craters.  The ice must be relatively pure and at least a couple of meters thick to give this signature.

The estimated amount of water ice potentially present is comparable to the quantity estimated solely from the previous mission of Lunar Prospector’s neutron data (several hundred million metric tons.)  The variation in the estimates between Mini-SAR and the Lunar Prospector’s  neutron spectrometer is due to the fact that it only measures to depths of about one-half meter, so it would underestimate the total quantity of water ice present.  At least some of the polar ice is mixed with lunar soil and thus, invisible to our radar.

"The emerging picture from the multiple measurements and resulting data of the instruments on lunar missions indicates that water creation, migration, deposition and retention are occurring on the moon," said Paul Spudis, principal investigator of the Mini-SAR experiment at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston. "The new discoveries show the moon is an even more interesting and attractive scientific, exploration and operational destination than people had previously thought."

"After analyzing the data, our science team determined a strong indication of water ice, a finding which will give future missions a new target to further explore and exploit," said Jason Crusan, program executive for the Mini-RF Program for NASA's Space Operations Mission Directorate in Washington.

The Mini-SAR's findings are being published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. The results are consistent with recent findings of other NASA instruments and add to the growing scientific understanding of the multiple forms of water found on the moon. The agency's Moon Mineralogy Mapper discovered water molecules in the moon's polar regions, while water vapor was detected by NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS.

Mini-SAR and Moon Mineralogy Mapper are two of 11 instruments on the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1. The Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md., performed the final integration and testing on Mini-SAR. It was developed and built by the Naval Air Warfare Center in China Lake, Calif., and several other commercial and government contributors.
jingyan66 发表于 2010-3-6 13:27 | 显示全部楼层

“月船一号”上NASA研制的载荷M3发现了月球上最大最深的月球坑

Radar on Chandrayaan finds deepest crater on moon


STAFF WRITER 18:11 HRS IST

Houston, Mar 5 (PTI) Scientists have discovered moon's biggest and deepest crater--some 2,400 kms long and 9 km deep -- using data from a NASA instrument that flew aboard India's maiden unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-I.

The US Space agency's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) detected the enormous crater -- the South Pole-Aitken basin -- that was created when an asteroid smacked into moon's southern hemisphere shortly after the formation of earth's only natural satellite.

"This is the biggest and deepest crater on the moon -- an abyss that could engulf the United States from the East Coast through Texas," said lead researcher Noah Petro of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt.
naugty 发表于 2010-3-6 16:05 | 显示全部楼层
Radar on Chandrayaan finds deepest crater on moon

STAFF WRITER 18:11 HRS IST

Houston, Mar 5 (P ...
jingyan66 发表于 2010-3-6 13:27



    果然是极区无光照的地方,  估计有新矿物
jingyan66 发表于 2010-5-23 14:43 | 显示全部楼层

“月船一号”发现月球上存在水蒸气的证据

Chandrayaan finds evidence of water vapour on Moon


Max Martin
Bangalore, May 18, 2010

Indian space scientists have found "evidence" of water vapour being present on Moon.

Earlier, they had inferred that water-bearing compounds and water molecules were present on the lunar surface and water ice was present inside craters.

Chandra's Altitudinal Composition Explorer (CHACE) has provided "direct" evidence of water in the sunlit lunar environment through in-situ measurements, a recent paper in the journal Planetary and Space Science said.

It takes the heat off a debate on whether Chandrayan-1's Moon Impact Probe (MIP) findings were merely instrument "contamination" or not. CHACE is a mass spectrometer aboard the MIP attached to Chandrayaan-1. The paper has been authored by Indian Space Research Organisation's Space Physics Laboratory (SPL) scientists in Thiruvananthapuram.

"It vindicates the presence of water on lunar surface in the form of ice at higher lunar latitudes as inferred by the (NASA-devised) Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)," said professor R. Sridharan. The former SPL director is the principal scientist for the experiment and the lead author of the paper.

M3 found signatures of hydroxyl ions and water molecules on the lunar surface, especially towards the poles.

Another NASA instrument, Mini- Synthetic Aperture Radar, found evidence for ice in lunar craters. These add credence to the findings and the credit for finding water on moon goes to Chandrayaan-1, Sridharan said.

CHACE sampled the lunar atmosphere every four seconds from 40 degrees north to 90 degrees south on the sunlit side of the moon, a feat carried out for the first time. Both experiments - CHACE and M3 - were complementary and provided unambiguous signatures for distribution of water along lunar latitudes, Sridharan said.

Moving from the lunar equator, CHACE detected first an increase and then a decrease in the amount of water vapour.

Sridharan said water ice sublimated due to high temperatures and low pressures on the moon because of which there water vapour was lesser in the poles that are cool.

NASA's Apollo 17, too, had a mass spectrometer on board and it was left on the Moon's surface. "It showed signs of several elements and a complex atmospheric composition, but the scientists then treated all of them as contaminants." Sridharan said.
jingyan66 发表于 2010-8-27 13:42 | 显示全部楼层
img_0445.jpg
jingyan66 发表于 2010-9-7 09:29 | 显示全部楼层

由于电能的限制,月船一号上的TMC相机仅绘制了月球45%面积的图像

'We're launching Chandrayaan-2 for a total coverage of the moon'


Sep 6, 2010, 12.00am IST


On August 30, India's second unmanned scientific mission to the moon, the Rs 425-crore Chandrayaan-2, slated for launch in 2013, a joint Indo-Russian flight, from Sriharikota, took a definite shape with the seven scientific instruments or payloads five on the India-built orbiter and two on the indigenous rover being announced by ISRO. A high-level committee headed by U R Rao , chairman, Advisory Committee on Space Sciences, made the choice of instruments . Srinivas Laxman talks to Rao, who was also chairman of ISRO between 1984 and 1994:

India's first lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 had accomplished nearly 95 per cent of its scientific objectives and is considered a success internationally. Why is India returning to the moon?

There are still a lot of outstanding issues about the moon, which have to be resolved in greater depth. Some of the experiments of Chandrayaan-1, moreover, achieved only 50 per cent to 70 per cent of their objectives. Again, due to power limitations, the Terrain Mapping Camera of Chandrayaan-1 could map only 45 per cent of the moon. We are launching Chandrayaan-2 because we need a total coverage of the moon, employ improved and new technology and obtain better quality photo imageries. The orbiter with the five payloads will be flying at an altitude of 200 km above the lunar surface and we estimate that its lifespan would be for two years depending on the use of the propellant.

A significant aspect of Chandrayaan-2 is that the orbiter, unlike in Chandrayaan-1, does not have any foreign payloads even though NASA and the European Space Agency showed interest. Is there any reason why foreign payloads have been removed?

As per the present plan we do not have any weight in the orbiter for foreign payloads. We were keen on giving an opportunity to our scientists. This is why we decided not to invite international participation this time. Keeping this in view we, unlike in Chandrayaan-1, did not issue a formal Announcement of Opportunity calling for international participation. Even at the last moment if we decide to have foreign payloads on Chandrayaan-2 after making weight allowances, we have to issue an Announcement of Opportunity, an elaborate exercise, which can delay the flight. The total mass of the five payloads on the orbiter is about 40 kg at the moment and we are trying to reduce it, which may be difficult.

In Chandrayaan-1 many Indian scientists regretted that their achievements were sidelined especially with regard to the discovery of water and NASA took away the credit. Is this a reason why the committee eliminated foreign instruments on board Chandrayaan-2?

[ Laughs ] The instruments were chosen based purely on their scientific merit. The weight of Indian rover was earlier stipulated as 15 kg. Has this been finalised and what will be its lifespan?

It will be more than that. It will function only for a few days on the surface of the moon because of power limitations. It will carry its own power. The design and development of the rover is a new technology for us. For the orbiter we have selected the right altitude of 200 km above the moon's surface for it to fly because too many corrections are not needed at this altitude. (The flight plan envisages the lander with the rover detaching from the orbiter at a certain point near the moon and soft landing on the lunar surface, the place has yet to be finalised. Thereafter, the rover will move out of the lander.)
jingyan66 发表于 2010-9-19 21:52 | 显示全部楼层

“月船一号”探测数据将面世,首季数据将于年底公布,第二季数据明年年中公布

Data From Chandrayaan Moon Mission To Go Public



2010-9-9

Voluminous scientific data, including rare images of the moon, from India’s maiden lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 will be made public by the year-end.

People will have free access to the huge data obtained from our first moon mission on a web portal that will be launched by this year-end,” a senior scientist of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said here.

“The data has been split into two seasons, with the first dealing from November 2008 to February 2009 and the second from March to August 2009. The first season data will be archived by year-end and the second by mid-2011,” said ISRO’s space application centre director B Gopala Krishna.

A total of 26 gigabytes of data and images will be uploaded after archiving the first season.

The archives will include chemical and mineral mapping, high resolution three-dimensional mapping and topographical features.

The state-run ISRO launched the 514 kg mooncraft onboard the polar satellite launch vehicle on October 22, 2008 from its spaceport Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh, about 80 km northeast of Chennai.

The Rs 3.9-billion Chandrayaan was the first mooncraft to have confirmed the presence of water on the moon.

After a 10-month rendezvous with the earth’s only natural satellite, the mission was terminated Aug 30, 2009 when the space agency’s Deep Space Network (DSN) at Bylalu, about 40 km from here, lost radio contact with Chandrayaan after computers onboard became non-functional.

“Though the dedicated portal will have a catalogue of the data, specific information will be made available for students and scholars pursuing research in space exploration,” Krishna said.

Indian space scientists are currently reviewing the voluminous data, including about 70,000 images relayed to DSN by the 10 scientific instruments Chandrayaan carried to the lunar orbit, about 100 km from the moon’s surface and over 400,000 km from the earth.

“Our scientists from various planetary groups are beginning to peer review the data from 10 of the 11 payloads. The same will be made accessible to the public as the lock-in period for the principal investigators of the mission to analyse will end by December,” Krishna said.

Of the 11 instruments, five were Indian and six were from the US and Europe.

ISRO scientists have used the planetary data system, developed by the US-based National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for preservation and utilisation of the archived information.

“We are also in the process of generating a topographical atlas and a mineralogical atlas of the moon from the data,” Krishna noted.

Detailed mapping of moon’s mineralogy and topography will pave way for further research possibilities.

“We will prepare an atlas of the moon with latitude, longitude, colours of areas, ice water, minerals and terrain from the sheets of topography in the data,” Krishna added.

Chandrayaan accomplished 95 percent of its scientific and technological objectives before its mission was called off prematurely. It had been programmed to orbit the moon for nearly two years.
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勇气 发表于 2010-11-10 16:25 | 显示全部楼层
回复 362# shaolin1254

外国造的6台仪器数量上说远高于5台阿三的仪器,价格估计也要远超阿三的5台仪器价格!外国造的6台仪器估计是不会计算入阿三造月船一号的成本的!何况外国造的6台仪器阿三也造不出来,就算造出来了成本也要比欧美造的成本高很多啊!
就是阿三自己的5台仪器及平台从失踪原因来看,也没有技术过硬,要完善成本也要高啊!

所以我觉得阿三月船一号的成本是减肥后的成本,连外国载荷的成本都能不计算!就是减肥后的成本也不够,要保障全部完成任务,减肥成本还要上升!
naugty 发表于 2010-11-10 16:26 | 显示全部楼层
呵呵,印度月船一号11台仪器里面有6台是外国造,这6台仪器成本阿三可没有计算在内吧!何况这6台仪器就是以欧 ...
勇气 发表于 2010-11-10 16:12



    嫦娥的发射,轨控都做的很好,但是不得不承认载荷水平比日印差一下,载荷偏少,直接导致完成的科学任务也少一些。这种情况其实和地球遥感卫星一样,载荷水平亟待提升!
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勇气 发表于 2010-11-10 16:37 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 勇气 于 2010-11-10 17:24 编辑

回复 393# naugty
我主要是在说成本啊!

另:印度月船一号载荷水平上很大程度估计是靠欧美的仪器取得的!从印度月船一号的平台出问题就可以看得出印度自己造的载荷水平比中国差很多!

寿命,经验,保证成功的设计冗余度和成本是息息相关的!印度月船一号的成本只有高,不会低!

日本的工业基础好,也有美国支持,载荷技术当然好,但成本高,也有90年代失败的探月,其经验教训的成本也该部分摊在日本这次2007年的探月上!但和印度月船一号扯在一起,估计比成本,日本印度不是一个档次的,怎么能扯在一起比啊?(把中国和日印做两方比较,不科学,日本印度无法揉合成一方啊)

又另:这种情况其实和地球遥感卫星一样?我也不太同意,地球遥感卫星载荷比较单一,探月卫星的载荷是综合的,在很大程度上载荷是不同的!如估计地球遥感卫星中的载荷估计决不会去探测太阳辐射强度,太空中某些射线的强度,可这些探月卫星的载荷就必须要探测,积累月球上空间环境的数据!将探月卫星的载荷和地球遥感卫星载荷等同,个人感觉不太科学!
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勇气 发表于 2010-11-10 17:12 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 勇气 于 2010-11-10 17:14 编辑

当然我承认中国的载荷水平亟待提升,但比较对象是欧美日!在成本上对欧美日还有一定的优势!

对阿三,中国载荷水平可以说整体在他上面,成本上也不会逊色!因为我们的蝉娥完成任务的完整性,超过预期的计划任务(如蝉娥15公里轨道高度的探测,实际运行时间远超计划中的一年时间,应该是计划外的撞月探测),长征火箭发射比阿三更重的蝉娥到月球轨道上,讨论性价比时是不是也该考虑到啊!
wsl20005 发表于 2016-2-27 16:11 | 显示全部楼层
6分半钟发射任务短片,,

wsl20005 发表于 2017-3-10 23:31 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 wsl20005 于 2017-3-10 23:42 编辑

在地球轨道中寻找遗失,遗弃的航天器和空间碎片可能是一项技术挑战。而在月球轨道上探测这些物体更加困难。光学望远镜无法搜索隐藏在月亮反射光中的小东西。

然而位于加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳的NASA喷气推进实验室的科学家利用首创的星际雷达新技术成功定位了月球轨道上失联许久的2颗航天器,一颗比较活跃,另外一颗无精打采处于休眠状态。他们分别是NASA的月球勘测器(LRO)和印度空间研究组织的Chandrayaan-1任务探月卫星。找到LRO相对容易,因为NASA工作人员一直致力于LRO的导航器工作,有精确的轨道数据支持他们去寻找。而找到印度的Chandrayaan-1就更费周折,因为该卫星与地球最后一次是在7年前的2009年8月Chandrayaan-1探月卫星非常小,是个每条边长大约1.5米的立方体。即便是世界上最强大的雷达,研究人员也不敢肯定可以找到距离地球这么远的物体。而最新研发的星际雷达主要用来观测距离地球几百万英里的微小行星。
u=2970805043,9220975&fm=170&s=A0500A662F3E361F95510D170100C0C2&w=640&h=3.jpeg
计算机生图像描绘了Chandrayaan-1在2016年7月2日被Goldstone太阳系雷达探测到
为了找到距离地球38万公里的探月卫星,NASA喷气推进实验室(简称JPL)的团队使用NASA的70米天线在美国加利福尼亚的金石(Goldstone)地面综合测控站直接向月亮发出强大的微波光束,之后从月球轨道反射回来的雷达信号被位于西弗吉尼亚州的100米高的绿色银行望远镜接收。JPL的计算表明Chandrayaan-1位于月球上方越200公里的地方,这已经属于“失控”位置。而JPL团队利用这2颗航天器处于月球极轨道的事实进行判断,它总会穿过每一个所处轨道的月球极点,所以通过雷达波束可以确认它们是否存在。


u=1396936368,2219855843&fm=170&s=3823F0127BAAB64906DE4B830300708D&w=640&.jpeg
雷达图像获取的Chandrayaan 1航天器,它飞越月球的南极在2016年7月3日

该团队使用返回的雷达信号数据来估算出它们的速度和距离目标位置的距离。进而可以进行更新航天器的轨道预测。事实证明Chandraaan-1的位置从2009年的旧轨道大约移动了约180度。研究团队3个月内又检测到了来自Chandraaan-1卫星的雷达反射波共计7次,这与他们对新轨道的预测完全一致。该技术表明,人类可以探测和跟踪月球轨道上更小的物体,同时也可以进行可能的碰撞评估,也可以在导航或者出现通信出现问题时进行可能的安全机制干预.


tianlan 发表于 2017-3-11 01:30 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 tianlan 于 2017-3-11 22:50 编辑
wsl20005 发表于 2017-3-10 23:31
在地球轨道中寻找遗失,遗弃的航天器和空间碎片可能是一项技术挑战。而在月球轨道上探测这些物体更加困难。 ...

这货不是运行在环月100公里高度上,难不成弄成再入返回飞行试验器服务舱了?

——弄错了,但是他不可能一直这么多年在200公里的轨道高度上撒,这个有可能吗?
F-117 发表于 2017-3-11 16:43 | 显示全部楼层
天了噜,居然还在轨,我都以为和马航一样坠毁了,看来还能废物利用下啊
jnalbizia 发表于 2017-3-11 18:01 | 显示全部楼层
F-117 发表于 2017-3-11 16:43
天了噜,居然还在轨,我都以为和马航一样坠毁了,看来还能废物利用下啊

脱控了吧.不好利用吧.?
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