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[专题] 火星大载荷着陆技术:NASA的超音速可膨胀可充气式减速伞技术 - LDSD 和 HIAD

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hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-11-6 12:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2016-3-18 11:35 编辑

++2016-03-18  更改标题
   新标题: 火星大载荷着陆技术:NASA的超音速可膨胀可充气式减速伞技术 - LDSD 和 HIAD
   旧标题: 火星大载荷着陆技术开发:NASA的LDSD-低密度超音速可膨胀可充气可展开减速伞...等


-------------开贴时内容-----------------
NASA的LDSD等这几年测试比较频繁,内容较多,单独分出来。
以前的都在下面的连接


航天器的再入(重入)、下降、着陆技术/RDL/EDL
   http://bbs.9ifly.cn/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1575&fromuid=566

  (出处: 航空航天港)



 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-11-6 12:22 | 显示全部楼层
1个月前的文章:

----------------  
NASA降落伞工程师们想做破坏性实验
NASAParachute Engineers Have Appetite for Destruction
October 8, 2014


            

   Engineers from NASA’s Jet PropulsionLaboratory in Pasadena, California, are bound and determined todestroy a perfectly good parachute this week during the latest test forthe Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project. The parachute to betested at the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station in California is the same 100-foot (30.5-meter)parachute design that flew during the first supersonic flight of LDSD this pastsummer. That test took place in June in Kauai, Hawaii, at the U.S. Navy'sPacific Missile Range Facility.
来自 加利福尼亚帕 NASA萨迪纳喷气推进实验室的工程师们,在这个星期最新的低密度超音速减速(LDSD)项目测试期间,限定并确定了去摧毁一个完好的降落伞。这个在加州中国湖海军航空武器站进行测试的降落伞 与 这个夏天 …飞行过的 …  是一样的100英尺(30.5米)的降落伞设计 。该测试发生在六月 考艾岛,夏威夷 ,在美国海军的太平洋导弹靶场设施。

                       

Theupcoming test, employing a Navy Seahawk helicopter, almost 4,000 feet (1,200meters) of synthetic rope and a rocket sled packing four solid rocket motorswith 280,000 pounds (127,000 kilograms) of thrust, is scheduled to take placeon Thursday, October 9, weather permitting.
即将到来的测试 ,采用一架美国海军海鹰直升机 ,几乎4000英尺1,200)合成纤维绳索 一个 包装了4个固体火箭发动机、 280000推力(127,000公斤)的火箭橇 预定周四 10月9日实施,天气允许的话。

               

“Whenever you get to see a rocketsled in action, that is a good day,” said Mark Adler, project manager forNASA’s LDSD project at JPL. “When you watch the sled rip apart something youworked very hard in creating, and be happy about it, that is a great day.”
“每当你​​看到运转中的火箭滑车 ,这是一个好日子,“ 马克阿德勒说 ,他是NASA喷气推进实验室LDSD项目的项目经理。“当你看到这个(火箭)橇 … … ,这是伟大的一天。“

              

The goalof the LDSD project’s ParachuteDesign Verification test 1-1B is to place stresses on NASA’s SupersonicDisksail Parachute that will cause the 8,000 square feet (740 square meters) ofsynthetic fiber and ripstop nylon to fail structurally. It is thelatest in a series of tests developed to evaluate two new landing technologiesfor future Mars missions.LDSD项目的降落伞设计验证测试1-1B的目标是, 加压NASA的超音速碟帆降落伞,这将导致 这个8000平方英尺(740平方米)的  合成纤维和防撕裂的尼龙 在结构上破裂。这是最新的一系列测试开发,以评估两个新的着陆技术,为未来火星任务。
               

“Our parachute has a not-to-exceedload during normal operations of 80,000 pound-force of pull,” said Adler. “Thenthere is another load rating well beyond that, where we expect the chute tofail. That is 120,000 pounds-force of pull. Well, to ensure we get to see howthe chute fails and at what load, we configured the sled so it can get up to162,000 pounds-force of pull when all the rockets kick in. The details of thefailure will be used to calibrate our models, and if the failure is earlier orin a different place than expected, we will address that in the parachutedesign before our supersonic flights this coming summer.”
“我们的降落伞 在拉80000磅力正常操作(时)不至超出负荷,” 阿德勒说。 “然后 有另外一个额定负载将远超出这个,在这时我们预期该伞将会破裂。这是12万磅力的拉动。还有 ,为确保我们能看到 该伞如何、以及在多少负载下破裂 ,我们配置的滑轨…   …“

           


When thetest begins, a Navy helicopter crew will lift the still-packed parachute,trailing on a very long, very sturdy rope and a chunk of ballast knownas the "bullet," to about 4,000 feet (1,200 meters) and then drop it.
当测试开始,一架海军直升机机组人员将升起仍包装着的降落伞,很长的拖曳着,非常坚固的绳子和被称为“子弹,”的压载厚物 4000英尺1,200)长,然后投放它。

               

At thispoint, a 300-horsepower winch -- connected to the other end of the rope --begins pulling. The parachute inflates, and the whole setup -- rope, bullet andinflated parachute -- descends toward the surface and the rocket sled at about 15 mph (24 kilometers per hour).
在这个(时间)点,一台300马力的绞车 - 连接这个绳索的另一端 - 开始拉。降落伞充气,而且整个的被组织起来 - 绳、子弹及充气伞 - 朝向地面下降,而(这时)火箭橇大约15英里每小时(每小时24公里)。

                  

Near thesurface, the bullet will enter a funnel, which guides it into alatching mechanism on the rocket sled. When this latch-up occurs, the firsttwo of four 70,000-pound (32,000-kilogram) thrust solid rocket motors fires. Afew seconds later the second set of rockets kicks in. The test is expected toapply the full load on the parachute canopy in about five seconds.
接近地面时,子弹将进入一个漏斗,该漏斗会引导它进入一个火箭滑车上的闭锁机构。当这个闩锁发生,四个70,00032,000公斤)推力固体火箭发动机前两个点火。几秒钟后,第二组火箭开踢。该测试有望应用于满载的伞篷 大约五秒钟

            


Theparachute is the same design used during the first high-altitude supersonicflight test of the LDSD project last June, which was launched from Kauai. During the Kauaitest, which was a shakeout flight designed to explore the capabilities ofLDSD’s saucer-shaped test vehicle, the test parachute shredded during itsdeployment at nearly 2,000 mph(3,200 kilometers per hour).
该降落伞 与 LDSD项目去年六月第一次高空超音速飞行试验过程中使用了相同的设计 ,哪个从考爱岛发射的…  …

                  

“That test was such a blessing tothis program,” said JPL’s Ian Clark, principal investigator for the LDSDproject. “We got an early look at the parachute we were going to test in 2015and found we needed to go back and rethink everything we thought we knew aboutsupersonic parachute inflation. When we combine what we learned there with thedata set from this test, we should have a new working model on how to buildlarge supersonic parachutes.”
“这次测试是 对这一计划是好事,”... JPL的伊恩·克拉克说 ,他是LDSD项目的主要研究者。 “我们得以早期观察 这个 我们将要在2015年测试的降落伞,… … ,我们应该有一种 如何建设大型超音速降落伞的新工作模式。

                 

A newsupersonic parachute design is expected to be ready in time for the next roundof Kauai flight tests scheduled for the summerof 2015.
一种新的超音速降落伞的设计,预期 赶在 定于2015年夏天考爱岛的 下一轮飞行测试前 准备好。

                  

“This is going to be fun,” saidAdler. “Basically, we are going to watch this test with every instrument we canget our hands on and then watch the parachute be destroyed. Then we will applywhat we learn to our future parachutes.”
“这会很有趣。” 阿德勒说。 “基本上 ,我们要用各种我们可以拿到手的器具,去看看这个测试,然后看着降落伞被破坏。然后,我们将运用我们所学… “

                  


Moreinformation about the LDSD space technology demonstration mission is online at:
         


NASA'sSpace Technology Mission Directorate funds the LDSD mission, a cooperativeeffort led by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. NASA's MarshallSpace Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages LDSD within theTechnology Demonstration Mission Program Office. NASA's Wallops Flight Facilityin Wallops Island, Virginia, is coordinating support with thePacific Missile Range Facility and is providing the balloon systems and coreavionics for the LDSD test.
…   …  ..


For moreinformation about the Space Technology Mission Directorate, visit:



 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2015-4-19 20:50 | 显示全部楼层
NASA青睐于(使用反向)推进型火星着陆,胜过超音速降落伞(着陆)
NASA favors propulsive Mars landings over supersonic parachutes
April 8, 2015 by Chris Bergin no alt
  http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2015/04/nasa-favors-propulsive-mars-landings-parachutes/
           
NASA’s Human Architecture Team (HAT) has opted to remove supersonic parachutes as an option for landing “human-scale hardware” on the surface of Mars. The decision will result in all forward planning involving a mix of supersonic retro propulsion in combination with deployable, inflatable, and rigid aeroshells for missions to the Red Planet.
NASA的载人体系团队(HAT)已经决定去除超音速降落伞作为在火星表面着陆载人尺度硬件的选项。该决定将导致所有的前瞻性规划 涉入一个混合超音速反推火箭与可展开、可膨胀、以及僵性气盾结合,去作为这个红色星球任务。
              
   
Landing On Mars:
着陆火星:
               
NASA is the global leader in successfully landing spacecraft on the surface of the Red Planet.
NASA是在这个红色星球表面上着陆航天器的 全球成功领导者。
         
Each success has enabled NASA to advance its understanding of not only Mars itself, but the challenges of safely placing a spacecraft on to the Martian terrain.
每一次成功不仅有利于NASA增进对火星本身的理解,而且挑战安全地放置航天器到火星地貌上。
               

NASA’s heritage reaches as far back as the two Viking landers arrived on the Red Planet in 1976. However, it’s the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that have blazed a trail for Martian science.
NASA的遗产可追朔到远在1976年的两个抵达这颗红色星球的海盗着陆器,而其火星探索巡视器(MER)开辟了火星科学的道路。

…  …
  …  大量回忆
  …   …
…  …

Once again, the experience gained from the successful EDL has allowed for the sister vehicle (the 2020 Rover) to further refine the key events of a Martian landing.
再次,从成功的EDL获得的经验,可使一个同类型的运载器(2020年巡视器),去进一步改善火星着陆关键事件。
               
Curiosity’s dive towards the surface show the 2020 Rover can enjoy the allowance of a lighter Thermal Protection System (TPS), along with refinements that could allow for an even greater “precision” landing on the Red Planet.
好奇号朝(火星)表面的俯冲,显示出2020年巡视器可以享有较轻的热防护系统(TPS)开销,伴随着改进,可以促成 在极其显著的精确度上降落在这颗红色星球上。
            
At least another 10 years will pass before NASA realizes its ambition of humans landing on Mars, with the current plan pointing to a notional target of sometime in the 2030s.
NASA实现其载人着陆火星野心之前,至少还要经过10年,当前计划的理论目标是21世纪30年代某个时候。
                 
However, the work of the Rovers is feeding into the ongoing evaluations into how to land both humans and assets on the planet.
无论如何,该巡视器的工作一直在贡献评估价值,以进一步(理解)如何着陆人类和物资在这个行星上。
               
Launching the hardware will be via the Space Launch System (SLS), landing the hardware on Mars remains notional, with graphical representations continuing to point to somewhat out-dated overviews, such as the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 reference material.
发射这些硬件将通过 太空发射系统(SLS),着陆这些硬件在火星上仍然是理论上的,凭借图形表述  继续 指向有点过时的 概览,比如设计参考体系架构(DRA5.0参考材料。
           
That overview shows a mix of aeroshell, parachute and propulsive techniques to allow huge landers to deploy on the surface.
那个概览展示了一个气盾、降落伞和推进技术的组合配置,以使巨大的着陆器部署在(火星)表面上
         
Concept Of Operations (CONOPS) documentation also pointed to the use of a Supersonic Parachute system aiding the descent – albeit for a very short period. However, NASA’s Human Architecture Team (HAT) have now opted to refine the approach that plays more into the recent EDL advances.
操作设想(CONOPS)文档还指出,使用超音速降落伞系统辅助下降  -   尽管只为一个非常短的时间段。无论如何,NASA的载人体系团队(HAT)现在已经选择 去优化该方法,在当前EDL进展中表现的更多。
           
The Human Architecture Team (HAT) presented the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) pathfinder study plan to the STMD Program Management Council (DPMC). The study plan was approved, which will lead to a near-term decision on the most promising technology approach for human-scale Mars EDL solutions,” noted L2 information.
载人体系团队(HAT)呈交了火星进入、下降和着陆(EDL)探路者研究计划  STMD项目管理委员会(DPMC)。该研究计划已经被批准,这将 在这个最有前途的技术方法上引导出一个短期的决定,作为载人尺度火星EDL解决方案来自L2的信息指出。
              
The HAT held a supersonic parachute workshop in which the consensus was that supersonic parachutes are not applicable to landing human scale payloads (>10 metric tons) on Mars.
“HAT召开了一个超音速降落伞研讨会,其中达成的共识是超音速降落伞不适用于在火星上着陆载人级载荷(> 10吨)
                  
As a result, further entry, descent, and landing studies will only consider concepts for supersonic retro propulsion in combination with deployable, inflatable, and rigid aeroshells.”
因此,深入地 进入、降落、和着陆研究 只考虑  超音速反推进 可展开、可充气、以及僵性气盾相组合的 概念。
            
While the use of propulsive technology has an embedded history in both NASA’s previous EDL techniques – and has become a major drive in SpaceX’s plans both for Earth and Mars related missions – the highlighting of the aeroshell technology points to the recent testing of NASA’s Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project.
而推进型技术的使用已经牢牢嵌入 NASA以前的EDL技术  历史 - 已成为SpaceX地球和火星相关任务计划的主要驱动力 - 正在增强的气盾技术 指向NASA低密度超音速减速(LDSD)项目的最近测试。
     
LDSD is gathering the required data about landing heavy payloads on Mars and other planetary surfaces, utilizing a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD).
LDSD正在收集有关着陆重型有效载荷在火星和其他行星表面所需要的 数据,(这是)利用一个超音速充气气动减速器(SIAD)。
            
The concept involves increasing the size of the aeroshell, creating a much larger surface area, generating more drag in the very thin Martian atmosphere.
该概念牵涉到增加气盾大小,建立一个更大的表面积,在非常稀薄的火星大气中 产生更多的阻力。
              
The first test of the LDSD technology occurred in June 2014, at the US Navy’s Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) on Kauai, Hawaii.
LDSD技术的首次测试在20146月发生,在美国海军太平洋夏威夷考爱岛导弹靶场设施(PMRF)上。
            
关于2014-06测试  …

A second test is expected to take place in June.
第二次测试有望发生在(今年)六月份。
            
A question remains for how NASA envisions the touchdown scenario for Mars landers, with the potential of using subsonic chutes in tandem with propulsive landing, or to opt for a fully propulsive touchdown.
一个问题仍然是 NASA如何预见 火星着陆器的着陆剧情,(是)使用 亚音速降落伞配合推进落地,或者选择完全推进型触地PS:如同当前SpaceX做法)。
              
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2015-4-30 08:28 | 显示全部楼层
LDSD运到Hawaii,准备6月实验。
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2015/04/29/nasas-ldsd-arrives-hawaii-advance-june-test/
lemoncap 发表于 2015-4-30 09:25 | 显示全部楼层
这就对了。记得前些阵老是有说伞降不能超过音速的说法。
joki 发表于 2015-4-30 10:07 | 显示全部楼层
lemoncap 发表于 2015-4-30 09:25
这就对了。记得前些阵老是有说伞降不能超过音速的说法。

有前提条件,火星的大气密度还可以,地球不太适合,特别是低空。
cmj9808 发表于 2015-4-30 11:50 | 显示全部楼层
lemoncap 发表于 2015-4-30 09:25
这就对了。记得前些阵老是有说伞降不能超过音速的说法。

这是个热护盾,不是降落伞
lemoncap 发表于 2015-4-30 22:42 | 显示全部楼层
joki 发表于 2015-4-30 10:07
有前提条件,火星的大气密度还可以,地球不太适合,特别是低空。

没有说全程。“使用 亚音速降落伞配合推进落地
lemoncap 发表于 2015-4-30 22:45 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2015-4-30 11:50
这是个热护盾,不是降落伞

“deployable, inflatable, and rigid aeroshells”
Supersonic Parachute system aiding the descent”

zhang 发表于 2015-5-1 02:54 | 显示全部楼层
应该和上次实验一样,超音速伞是搭便车任务。成功于否和 LDSD 没有多大的关系。
cmj9808 发表于 2015-5-1 09:51 | 显示全部楼层
lemoncap 发表于 2015-4-30 22:45
“deployable, inflatable, and rigid aeroshells”
“Supersonic Parachute system aiding the descent ...

这是个破坏性试验,目的是记录超音速降落伞如何被大气层摧毁,现有材料貌似还无法实现能在地球大气层使用的超音速伞。
sun_pc79 发表于 2015-5-1 11:36 | 显示全部楼层
从返回式胶卷盒就研究(破坏)了。。。结果是去找轻质量刚性减速防热护盾。
zimu 发表于 2015-5-1 21:15 | 显示全部楼层
lemoncap 发表于 2015-4-30 09:25
这就对了。记得前些阵老是有说伞降不能超过音速的说法。

好奇号着陆减速用的就是超音速减速伞。

不过那是火星,
lemoncap 发表于 2015-5-2 04:32 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2015-5-1 09:51
这是个破坏性试验,目的是记录超音速降落伞如何被大气层摧毁,现有材料貌似还无法实现能在地球大气层使用 ...

From NASA LDSD press_kits

"High in Earth’s stratosphere, NASA’s Low-Density
Supersonic Decelerator mission will test new, fullscale
parachutes and drag devices at supersonic
speeds to refine them for future use at Mars. Testing
will be conducted through 2015."

所以目的不是摧毁而是用它。
lemoncap 发表于 2015-5-2 04:41 | 显示全部楼层
这里给个关键词 ballute
其他结论自个去思考
lemoncap 发表于 2015-5-2 04:50 | 显示全部楼层
zimu 发表于 2015-5-1 21:15
好奇号着陆减速用的就是超音速减速伞。

不过那是火星,

地球大气层高度高些不就补偿了?
cmj9808 发表于 2015-5-3 10:47 | 显示全部楼层
lemoncap 发表于 2015-5-2 04:32
From NASA LDSD press_kits

"High in Earth’s stratosphere, NASA’s Low-Density

在火星用而不是在地球,而且在火星超音速降落伞也只适合探测器这种低于10t的小质量载荷,这就是为什么3楼Chris的文章里NASA倾向于使用“可膨胀热护盾+超音速反推”用于载人任务
lemoncap 发表于 2015-5-9 12:52 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2015-5-3 10:47
在火星用而不是在地球,而且在火星超音速降落伞也只适合探测器这种低于10t的小质量载荷,这就是为什么3楼 ...

超音速降落伞回收不一定适合大重量高速度(轨道速度再入),但对一级回收这种相对低速,即使是大重量,也是有很强竞争力的。
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2015-6-3 06:07 | 显示全部楼层
明早发射:
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2015/06/02/view-nasas-ldsd-flight-live/
cmj9808 发表于 2015-6-3 11:49 | 显示全部楼层
Chris的预热文章,这次主要检验上次出问题的超音速降落伞,第三次测试在明年夏天

http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2 ... -mars-landing-tech/
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